Physicochemical Characteristics of Larval Habitat Waters of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran

  • MohammadReza Abai Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Abedin Saghafipour Qom Provincial Health Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.
  • Hossein Ladonni Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Nahid Jesri Department of Watershed and Rangeland Management, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
  • Saeed Omidi School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
  • Shahyad Azari-Hamidian Mail School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus, larvae, oviposition site


Background: Mosquitoes lay eggs in a wide range of habitats with different physicochemical parameters. Ecological data, including physicochemical factors of oviposition sites, play an important role in integrated vector management. Those data help the managers to make the best decision in controlling the aquatic stages of vectors especially using source reduction.Methods: To study some physicochemical characteristics of larval habitat waters, an investigation was carried out in Qom Province, central Iran, during spring and summer 2008 and 2009. Water samples were collected during larval collection from ten localities. The chemical parameters of water samples were analyzed based on mg/l using standard methods. Water temperature (°C), turbidity (NTU), total dissolved solids (ppm), electrical conductivity (µS/cm), and acidity (pH) were measured using digital testers. Thermotolerant coliforms of water samples were analyzed based on MPN/100ml. Data were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman Correlation analysis.Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected including 14 species representing four genera. Some physico­chemical parameters of water in Emamzadeh Esmail, Qomrood, Qom City, and Rahjerd showed significant differ­ences among localities (P< 0.05). The physicochemical and microbial parameters did not show any significant dif­ferences among different species (P> 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the abundance of larvae and the different physicochemical and microbial parameters (P> 0.05).Conclusion: The means of EC, TDS, and phosphate of localities and species were remarkably higher than those of the previous studies. Other parameters seem to be in the range of other investigations. 


Abdel-Hamid YM, Mostafa AA, Allam KM, Kenawy MA (2011) Mosquitoes (Dip- tera: Culicidae) in El Gharbia Gover- norate, Egypt: their spatial distribution, abundance and factors affecting their breeding related to the situation of lym- phatic filariasis. Egypt Acad J Biolog Sci. 3: 9–16.

Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Mosslem M, Rassaei AR (2004) Notes on Co- quillettidia richiardii and Uranotaenia unguiculata (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province. J Med Fac Guilan Univ Med Sci. 13(51): 1–9 (in Persian).

Azari-Hamidian S (2005) Larval habitat char- acteristics of mosquitoes of the genus Culiseta Felt, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Caspian Sea littoral, Iran. Zool Middle East. 36: 59–66.

Azari-Hamidian S (2006) On the ecology of the tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in the Caspian Sea littoral, Iran. The 11th International Congress of Par- asitology, 6–11 August 2006, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Azari-Hamidian S (2007a) Checklist of Ira- nian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Ecol. 32: 235–242.

Azari-Hamidian S (2007b) Larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes of the genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthro- pod-Borne Dis. 1: 9–20.

Azari-Hamidian S, Harbach RE (2009) Keys to the adult females and fourth-instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Iran (Dip- tera: Culicidae). Zootaxa. 2078: 1–33.

Azari-Hamidian S (2011) Larval habitat characteristics of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and a checklist of mosquitoes in Guilan Province, north- ern Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis.5: 37–53.

Clements AN (1992) The Biology of Mos-quitoes Volume 1. Development, Nutri- tion and Reproduction. Chapman and Hall, London.

Farzinnia B, Saghafipour A, Abai MR (2010) Malaria situation and anopheline mos- quitoes in Qom Province, central Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4: 61–67.

Ghanbari MR, Rakhsh Khorshid A, Salehi M, Hassanzehi A (2005) The study of physical and chemical factors affecting breeding places of Anopheles in Iran- shahr. Tabib-e-Shargh, J Zahedan Univ Med Sci. 7: 221–227 (in Persian).

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatan- doost H, Charrahy Z (2011) Spatio- temporal distribution of malaria vec- tors (Diptera: Culicidae) across differ- ent climatic zones of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4: 498–504.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Charrahy Z, Haghdoost AA, Sed- aghat MM, Abedi F, Soltani M, Raeisi A (2012) Larval habitats and biodiver- sity of anopheline mosquitoes (Dip- tera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 49:91–100.

Ibrahim AA, El-Monairy OM, El-Sayed YA, Baz MM (2011) Mosquito breeding sources in Qalyubiya Governorate, Egypt. Egypt Acad J Biolog Sci. 3:25–39.

Khamala PMC (1971) The biting flies of Kano plains, Kenya: Part II. Larval habitats of common mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res. 61: 299–307.

Lotfi MD (1976) Key to Culicinae of Iran, genus Culex and their biology (Dip- tera: Culicidae). Iran J Public Health.5: 71–84.

Macan TT (1950) Anopheles and Malaria in the Near East. Part III. The Anopheline Mosquitoes of Iraq and North Persia. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Research Memoir No 7, HKand Lewis Co Ltd, London.

Muirhead-Thomson RC (1951) Mosquito Behaviour in Relation to Malaria Trans- mission and Control in the Tropics. Edward Arnold and Co, London.

Piyaratne MK, Amerasinhe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Konradsen F (2005) Physico- chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breed- ing water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka. J Vector Borne Dis. 42: 61–67.

Raeisi A, Shahbazi A, Ranjbar M, Shoghli A, Vatandoost H, Faraji L (2004) Na- tional Strategy Plan for Malaria Con- trol (I.R. Iran 2004–2008). Ministry of Health and Medical Education (Iran), Seda Publishing Center, Tehran.

Reinert JF (2009) List of abbreviations for currently valid generic-level taxa in family Culicidae (Diptera). Eur Mosq Bull. 27: 68–76.

Rice EW, Baird RB, Eaton AD, Clesceri LS (2012) Standard Methods for the Ex- amination of Water and Wastewater.

nd Edition. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Fed- eration, Cenveo Publisher Services, Richmond.

Saghafipour A, Abai MR, Farzinnia B, Nafar R, Ladonni H, Azari-Hamidian S (2012) Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of Qom Province, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 6: 54–61.

Sasikumar PS, Suryanarayanan P, Thomas C, Kalyanaraman K, Prasad RS (1986) Influence of certain physic-chemical factors upon the larval population of Mansonia mosquitoes (Culicidae: Dip- tera) in Trivandrum City, India. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Anim Sci). 95: 549–555.

Surendran SN, Ramasamy R (2005) Some characteristics of the larval breeding sites of Anopheles culicifacies species B and E in Sri Lanka. J Vector Borne Dis. 42: 39–44.

WHO (2008) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Second Addendum to Third Edition. Vol. 1. Recommendations. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Namazi J, Piazak N (2001) Bionomics of Anopheles sacha- rovi in Ardebil Province, northwestern Iran during a larval control program. Acta Trop. 78: 207–215.

How to Cite
Abai M, Saghafipour A, Ladonni H, Jesri N, Omidi S, Azari-Hamidian S. Physicochemical Characteristics of Larval Habitat Waters of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(1):65–77.
Original Article