Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

  • Walter Ceretti-Junior Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Rafael de-Oliveira-Christe Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil AND Tropical Medicine Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Marco Rizzo Office of Parks and Green Areas, Department of the Environment and Green Areas, São Paulo City Hall, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • Regina Claudia-Strobel Office of Parks and Green Areas, Department of the Environment and Green Areas, São Paulo City Hall, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • Marco Otavio-de-Matos-Junior Laboratory for Research into and Identification of Synanthropic Fauna, Zoonosis Control Center, Health Surveillance Coordination Unit, Municipal Health Department, São Paulo City Hall, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • Maria Helena-Silva-Homem-de-Mello Laboratory for Research into and Identification of Synanthropic Fauna, Zoonosis Control Center, Health Surveillance Coordination Unit, Municipal Health Department, São Paulo City Hall, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • Aristides Fernandes Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Antônio Ralph-Medeiros-Sousa Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Gabriela Cristina-de-Carvalho Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Mauro Toledo-Marrelli Mail Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil AND Tropical Medicine Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Keywords:
Mosquitoes, Bromeliads, Municipal Parks, Culicidae Breeding sites, Immature, Brazil

Abstract

Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

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Published
2016-02-06
How to Cite
1.
Ceretti-Junior W, de-Oliveira-Christe R, Rizzo M, Claudia-Strobel R, Otavio-de-Matos-Junior M, Helena-Silva-Homem-de-Mello M, Fernandes A, Ralph-Medeiros-Sousa A, Cristina-de-Carvalho G, Toledo-Marrelli M. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(1):102–112.
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Short Communication