Measures to Control Phlebotomus argentipes and Visceral Leishmaniasis in India
AbstractVisceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India. In 2005, India embarked on an initiative with Nepal, Bangladesh, and the World Health Organization to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis by 2015. With the goal of 1 case in 10,000 people still unmet, it is prudent to evaluate the tools that have been used thus far to reduce vector numbers and cases of the disease. Herein, we present a review of studies conducted on vector-control strategies in India to combat visceral leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, environmental modification, and feed-through insecticides. This review suggests that the quality of indoor residual spraying may enhance control measures while a combination of spraying, nets, and feed-through insecticides would best confront the diverse habitats of P. argentipes.
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