Original Article

Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

Abstract

Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reser­voir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran.Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investi­gated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR.Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H.asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus.Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

Appannaanvar SB, Mishra B (2011) An update on Crimean Congo hemor- rhagic Fever. J Global Infect Dis. 3 (3): 285.

Champour M, Chinikar S, Mohammadi G, Razmi G, Shah-Hosseini N, Kha- kifirouz S, Mostafavi E, Jalali T (2014) Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi- rus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) pop- ulation in northeastern Iran. J Parasit Dis. pp. 1–6.

Charrel R, Attoui H, Butenko A, Clegg J, Deubel V, Frolova T, Gould E, Grit- sun T, Heinz F, Labuda M (2004)Tick‐borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 10(12): 1040–1055.

Chinikar S, Persson SM, Johansson M, Bladh L Goya M, Houshmand B, Mirazimi A, Plyusnin A, Lundkvist A Nilsson M (2004) Genetic analysis of Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus in Iran. J Med Virol. 73(3): 404–411.

Chinikar S, Shayesteh M, Khakifirouz S, Jalali T, Rasi-Varaie FS, Rafigh M, Mostafavi E, Shah-Hosseini N (2013) Nosocomial infection of Crimean– Congo Hemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report. TravelMedInfect Dis. 11(4): 252–255.

Chinikar S, Shah-Hosseini N, Bouzari S, Jalali T, Shokrgozar AM, Mostafavi E (2013) New circulating genomic variant of Crimean-Congo Hemor- rhagic fever virus in Iran. Arc Virol.158(5): 1085–1088.

Chinikar S, Ghiasi S, Hewson R, Moradi M, Haeri A (2010) Crimean-Congo hem- orrhagic fever in Iran and neighbor- ing countries. J Clin Virol. 47(2):110–114.

Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Naddaf S, Piazak N, Moradi M, Razavi MR, Afzali N, Haeri A, Mostafavizadeh K, Ataei B (2012) Serological evaluation of Cri- mean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of Isfahan Province of Iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 12(9): 733–738.

Chinikar S, Goya M, Shirzadi M, Ghiasi S, Mirahmadi R, Haeri A, Moradi M, Afzali N, Rahpeyma M, Zeinali M (2008) Surveillance and Laboratory Detection System of Crimean‐Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Iran. Trans boundary and Emerging Dis. 55(5–6): 200–204.

Chumakov M (1972) Detection of antibod- ies to CHF virus in wild and domes- tic animal blood sera from Iran and Africa. pp. 367–368.

Defens Pest Managment Information Anaiysis Center. Armed Forces Glen section Walter Reed Army Medical Center Washington (1999) Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile the Middel East.

Ergonul O (2006) Crimean-Congo haemor- rhagic fever. The Lancet Infect Dis.6(4): 203–214.

Faghihi F, Sadegh Chinikar, Zakkyeh Tel- madarraiy, Hasan Bakhshi, Sahar Kha- kifirooz, Tahmineh Jalali, Gidiglo God- win Nutifafa (2015) Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever: A seroepidemio- logical and molecular survey in north of Iran. J Entomol Zool Stud. 3(1):1–4.

Hoogstraal H (1979) The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhag- ic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol. 15(4): 307–417.

Karimi F (2013) Determination of viral in- fection rate of hard ticks to Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and their distribution pattern using Geographic Information System (GIS) in the Kashan District, Isfahan Prov- ince. Master of Science Medical En- tomology. Teheran University of Med- ical Sciences, School of public Health and Institute of Public Health Re- search Department of Medical Ento- mology and Vector Control.

Linthicum KJ, Bailey CL (1994) Ecology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Ecological dynamic of tick-borne zoonoses (Sonenshine and Mather, eds). pp. 392–437.

Majeed B, Dicker R, Nawar A, Badri S, Noah A, Muslem H (2012) Morbidity and mortality of Crimean-Congo hem- orrhagic fever in Iraq: cases reported to the National Surveillance System,1990–2010. Trans Royal Society

Tropical Med Hyg. 106(8): 480–483. Mehravaran A, Moradi M, Telmadarraiy Z,Mostafavi E, Moradi AR, Khakifirouz S, Shah-Hosseini N, Varaie FSR, Jalali T, Hekmat S (2013) Molecular de- tection of Crimean-Congo haemor- rhagic fever (CCHF) virus in ticks from southeastern Iran. Ticks and Tick-borne Dis. pp. 35–38.

Moradi A, Chinikar S, Oshaghi M, Vatan- doost H, Holakoui-Naini K, Zahirnia A (2008) Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus in Ticks (Ixodidae, Argasidae) of Hamedan Province, Iran. Biochem Cell Arch. 8(1): 119–123.

Nasiri A (2009) Molecular study on tick in- fectivity to CCHF virus and sero- logical investigation on sheep and human in Abdanan region, Ilam Prov- ince, Iran. Master of Science Medical Entomology. Teheran University of Medical Sciences, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control.

Ölschläger S, Gabriel M, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Meyer M, Osborn E, Conger NG, Allan PF, Günther S (2011) Com- plete sequence and phylogenetic char- acterisation of Crimean-Congo hem- orrhagic fever virus from Afghani- stan. J ClinVirol. 50(1): 90–92.

Papa A, Bozovi B, Pavlidou V, Papadi- mitriou E, Pelemis M, Antoniadis A (2002) Genetic detection and isola- tion of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo. Emerging Infect Dis. 8(8): 853.

Salim-Abadi Y, Chinikar S, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, Moradi M, Oshaghi MA, Ghiasi-Seyed M (2011) Cri- mean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a molecular survey on hard ticks (Ix- odidae) in Yazd province, Iran. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 4(1): 61–63.

Sharifinia N, Rafinejad J, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Biglarian A, Chinikar S, Baniardalani M, SharifiniaF, Karimi F (2013) Knowledge and Attitudes of the Ru- ral Population and Veterinary and Health Personnel Concerning Cri- mean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Western Iran in 2012. Florida Ento- mologist. 96(3): 922–928.

Shirani M, Asmar M, Chinikar S, Mirah- madi R, Piazak N, Mazaheri V (2004) Detection of CCHF virus in soft ticks (Argasidae) by RT-PCR method. J Infec Dis Trop Med. 9 (24): 11–15.

Sureau P, Klein J, Casals J, Digoutte J, Salaun J, Piazak N, Calvo M (1980) Isolation of Thogoto, Wad Medani, Wanowrie and Crimean-Congo haem- orrhagic fever viruses from ticks of domestic animals in Iran. Annales de Virolo. 131(2): 185–200.

Swanepoel R, Shepherd A, Leman P, Shep- herd S, McGillivray G, Erasmus M, Searle L, Gill D (1987) Epidemio- logic and clinical features of Cri- mean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. The American J Ttrop Med Hyg. 36(1): 120–132.

Tahmasebi F, Ghiasi S, Mostafavi E, Moradi M, Piazak N, Mozafari A, Haeri A, Fooks A, Chinikar S (2010) Molecu- lar epidemiology of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome iso- lated of ticks from Hamadan Prov- ince of Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 47:211–216.

Telmadarraiy Z, Davari A, Vatandoost H (2006) Ruminant animal ticks and their role in CCHF transmission in Ghaen, south Khorasan Province, Iran during 2005. In ICOPA XI11th Inter Con Parasito. pp. 6–1.

Telmadarraiy Z, Chinikar S, Vatandoost H, Holakoui K, Faghihi F, Zarei Z, Oshaghi M (2007) P1044 Serology and immunological study on the in- fectivity of host animals and ticks (Ixodidae, Argasidae) to CCHF virus in Ardabil Province, Iran. International JAntimicrobial Agents. 29: S280.

Telmadarraiy Z, Ghiasi SM, Moradi M, Vatandoost H, Eshraghian MR, Faghihi F, Zarei Z, Haeri A, Chini- kar S (2010)A survey of Crimean- Congo haemorrhagic fever in live- stock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004–2005. Scandina- vian J Infect Dis. 42(2): 137–141.

Telmadarraiy Z, Saghafipour A, Farzinnia B, Chinikar S (2014) Molecular De- tection of Crimean-Congo Hemor- rhagic Fever Virus in Ticks in Qom Province, Iran, 2011–2012. Iranian J Virolo. 6(3): 13–18.

Walker AR, Bouattur A, Camicas J, Estrada- Pena A, Horak I, Latif A, Pegram R, Preston P (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: A guide to iden- tification of species. Bioscience re- ports Edinburgh. pp. 572–577

Whitehouse CA (2004) Crimean-Congo Hem- orrhagic fever. Antiviral research. 64:145–60.

Files
IssueVol 10 No 3 (2016) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
Published2016-06-18
Keywords
Ixodidae CCHFV Kermanshah Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Mohammadian M, Chinikar S, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sedaghat MM, Noroozi M, Faghihi F, Jalali T, Khakifirouz S, Shahhosseini N, Farhadpour F. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(3):383-393.