Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran
AbstractBackground: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae) were collected comprising 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Frequency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.
Abbassian-Lintzen R (1960) A preliminary list of ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) occur- ring in Iran, and their distributional data. Acarologia. 2: 43-61.
Aghighi Z, Assmar M, Piazak, N, Javadian E, Seyedi Rashti MA, Kia EB, Rassi Y, Vatandoost H (2007) Distribution of soft ticks and heir natural infection with Borrelia in a focus of relapsing fever in Iran. Iranian J of Arth-Borne Dis. 1(2):14-18.
Arshi Sh, Majidpoor A, Sadeghi H, and As- mar M (2002) Relasping fever in Ardabil, a northwestern province of Iran. Arch of Iranian Med. 5(3): 141-145.
Baltazard M, Bahmanyar M, Pournaki R, Mofidi Ch. and Chama M (1941) Ur- nithodorus tartakovsky Olenev 1931 et Borrelia (Spirochaeta) latychevi Sofiev. Note préliminaire. Ann Parasit Humaine et compare, 1952. 27: 311-328.
Brumpt E (1935) Presentation de deux Orni- thodotus canstrinii Bir 1895, vivants originaires d Isphahan (Perse). Bull Soc Path Exot. 28: 51-53.
Cunha BA (2000) Tick borne infectious dis- ease, diagnostic and management. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Publication, New York. PP. 283.
Deply L (1936) Notes sur les Ixodidés du ge- nere Hyaloma (koch). Ibid. 14: 206-245.
Gray JS, Kahl O, Lane SR, Stanek G. Lyme Borreliosis (2002) Biology and control. CABI publishing Book. PP.368.
Janbakhsh B, Ardelan A (1970) The ticks of sporadic cases of relapsing fever in Iran,5th Proceeding Iranian Plant Protection Congress.
Jongejan F, Uilenberg G (2004) The global importance of ticks. Parasitol. 129 Sup- plement: S3-14.
Maghami G (1968) Internal Parasite of live- stock in Iran. Institute of Razi. 20: 81-83.
Majid-pour A (2003) A case of borrelia men- ingitis. Arch of Iranian Med. 6(3): 222-223.
Mazlumi Z (1968) Hyalomma asiaticum asi- aticum Schulze and Schlottke, its distri- bution, hosts, seasonal activity, life cycle, and role in transmission of bovine theil- eriosis in Iran. Acarologia. 10: 437- 442.
Nekoui H, Assmar M, Amirkhani SA, Pyazak N (1999) Distribution of ticks and their association with Borrelia in Semnan pro- vince. Iranian J of Pub Health. 28(1-3):103-109.
Piazak N (1991) Preliminary studies on the presence of Lyme disease in Iran through the study of Ixodes ricinus population. MSc thesis. School of Public Health & Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Robinson RG, Spradling MS (2006) Vector- borne disease in Iran. Washington DC publication USA.Available in internet. http://www.afpmb.org/pubs/dveps/iran.pdf.
Tavakoli M (1997) Survey on geographical distribution of ticks in Lorestan prov- ince (western Iran). MSc dissertation. Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran.
Telmadarraiy Z, Bahrami A, Vatandoost H (2004) A survey on fauna of ticks in west Azerbaijan province, Iran. Iranian J of Pub Health. 33: 65-69.
Tilecooh R (1997) Investigation on the in- fection of Ornithodoros tholozani in Ta- kab, West Azerbaijan province, Iran, MSc dissertation. School of Public Health & Institute of Health Research, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences. Vatandoost H, Ghaderi A, Javadian E, Zahir nia AH, Rassi Y, Piazak Y, Kia EB, Shaeghi M, Telmadarreiy Z, Aboul- ghasani M (2003) Distribution of soft ticks and their infection with Borrelia in Hamadan province, Iran. Iranian J of Pub Health. (1): 22-24.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.