Original Article

Spatial Analyses of the Relation between Rodent’s Active Burrows and Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golestan Province, Northeastern of Iran


Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Iran. Wild Rodents play as a reservoir. The main aim of this study was to determine spatial analyses of the relationship between rodent’s active burrows and Incidence of ZCL in Golestan Province, north east of Iran.
: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 59 rural districts in Golestan Province. Spatial distribution of rodent’s active burrows, human cases of ZCL and Incidence of disease were collected, using Geographical Infor­mation Systems (GIS). The relationship of them were analyzed by Sperman test, SPSS software version No.13.
: The most number of rodents’ active burrows, human positive cases (100 persons) and high Incidence of disease (35/1000) were observed in Korand rural district of Gonbad-e Kavoos County. There was significant corre­lation between the number of rodents active burrows with Incidence rate of disease (0.470, P< 0.001) as well as the number of cases in each districts (0.465, P< 0.001), There is high correlation between higher Incidence rate and hu­man positive cases in districts with number of rodents’ active burrows. 
Vicinity of wild rodents’ burrows to villages plays an important role in transmission of ZCL to humans.

Azizi K, Davari B, Kalantari M, Fekri S (2011) Gerbillid rodents fauna (Muridae: Ger- billinae) and detection of reservoir hosts (s) of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmania- sis using a Nested-PCR technique in Jask City in Hormozgan Province in 2008. J Kurdistan Uni Med Sci. 16(2):

–76 (Persian).

Bordbar A, Parvizi P (2014) High density of Leishmania major and rarity of other mammals' Leishmania in zoonotic cu- taneous leishmaniasis foci, Iran. Trop Med Int Health. 19(3): 355–363.

Cherabin M, Sofizadeh A, Palideh AR, Gharavi AH, Gharavi M (2012) Epi- demiological characteristics of Cauta- neous Leishmaniasis in Maraveh tapeh district, Golestan Province during 2006–2010. J Zabol Uni Med Sci. 4(1): 19–27. (Persian).

Doroodgar A, Mahbobi S, Nemetian M, Sayyah S, Doroodgar M (2009) An ep- idemiological study of cutaneous leish- maniasis in Kashan (2007–2008). J Sem- nan Uni Med Sci. 10(3): 177–184. (Per- sian).

Forozani AR, Khojeeian AM, Darabi H, Foladvand MA, Nabipour E, Bahramian F (2011) Fauna and monthly activity of sandflies in Boshehr district (2008–2009). South Med J. 14(1): 31–40. (Per- sian).

Karimi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Er- shadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ghezelbash Z (2014) Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran. Acta Tropica. 132: 131–139.

Kassiri H, Naddaf SR, Javadian EA, Mohe- bali M (2013) First report on isolation and characterization of Leishmania ma- jor from Meriones hurrianae (Rodent- ia: Gerbillidae) of a rural Cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in South-Eastern Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 15(9): 789–793.

Meteorological Office of Golestan Province.Available at: http://www.golestanmet. ir/portal/index.php?page=download&o p=getFile&title

Mirzaei A, Rouhani S, Taherkhani H, Farah- mand M, Kazemi B, Hedayati M, Bagha- ei A, Davari B, Parvizi P (2011) Isola- tion and detection of Leishmania species among naturally infected Rhombymuis opimus, a reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkemen Sahara, North East of Iran. Experi- mental Parasitol. 129(4): 375–380.

Mohammadi Azni S, Nokandeh Z, Khorsan- di AA, Sanei Dehkordi AR (2010) Ep- idemiology of Cutaneous Leishmania- sis in Damghan district. Iran J Military Mede. 12(3): 131–135. (Persian).

Nadim AH, Javadian A, Mohebali M, Zamen Momeni A (2009) Leishmania parasite and leishmaniasis. 3nd. Tehran: Nashredaneshgahi center. (Persian).

Parvizi P, Hedayati M (2010) Leishmania infections in rodents, reservoir hosts of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Turkmen Sahra, Gonbad, Golestan Prov- ince. J Guilan Uni Med Sci. 18(72):30–38. (Persian).

Rassi Y, Hanafi Bojd AA (2006) Sandflies, leishmaniasis vectors. Tehran: Noava- raneelm Publication. (Persian).

Rassi Y, Javadian E, Amin M, Rafizadeh S, Vatandoost H, Motazedian H (2006) Meriones libycus is the main reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in south Islamic Republic of Iran. East Med Health J. 12(3–4): 475–477.

Rassi Y, Sofizadeh A, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafizadeh S, Mohebail M, F Moh- tarami, R Salahi (2008) Molecular de- tection of Leishmania major in the vec- tors and reservoir hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kalaleh District, Go- lestan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 2(2): 21–27.

Rassi Y, Saghafipour A, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafizadeh S, Mohebali M, Ya- ghoobi-Ershadi MR, Mohtarami F, (2011) Phlebotomus papatasi and Mer- iones libycus as the vector and res- ervoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qomrood District, Qom Province, central Iran. Asian Pacific J Trop Med.4(2): 97–100.

Roshanghalb M, Parvizi P (2012) Isolation and determination of Leishmania major and Leishmania turanika in Phleboto- mus papatasi main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkmen Sahra, Golestan Province. J Mazanda- ran Uni Med Sci. 21(1): 74–83. (Persian).

Rouhani S, Mirzaei A, Spotin A, Parvizi P (2014) Novel identification of Leish- mania major in Hemiechinus auritus and molecular detection of this parasite in Meriones libycus from an important foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmania- sis in Iran. J Infect Public Health. 7(3):210–217.

Sofizadeh A (2007) Study on vectors and reservoir hosts of Cutaneous Leish- maniasis by using molecular methods in Kalaleh district, Golestan Province. [MSc dissertation]. Medical Entomology and Vector control. School of Public Health. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Iran.

Sofizadeh A, Faraji Far AA, Cherabin M, Badiei F, Cherabin M, Sarli J, Yapang Gharavi, Mehravaran A (2013 ) Cuta- neous leishmaniasis in Gonbad Kavoos, north of Iran (2009–2011): an epide- miological study. J Gorgan Uni Med Sci. 14(4): 100–106. (Persian).

Sofizadeh A, Rassi Y, Abaei MR, Oshaghi MA, Salahi R, Rafizadeh S, Mohebali M (2009) Ecological characters of leish- maniasis vectors in Kalaleh district, Go- lestan Province, Iran (2006–2007). J Gor- gan Uni Med Sci. 11(3): 81–85. (Persian).

Tari SA, Vakili Z, Moshtaghi S (2004) Prev- alence survey of cutaneous leishmani- asis in Kashan district in 1999–2001. Feiz J. 26: 71–76. (Persian).

WHO (2012) A human rights-based approach to neglected tropical diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008. Avail- able at: http://www.who.int/tdr/ publi- cations/tdrresearch-publications/human- ights/en/index.html [Accessed on Sep- tember 3, 2012].

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2012) Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmis- sion. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 6: 1–17.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akhavan AR, Zahrai-Ramazani AR, Mohebali M (2001) Epidemiological study in a new focus of cutaneous leish- maniasis due to Leishmania major in Ardestan town, central Iran. Acta Trop.79: 115–121.

IssueVol 10 No 4 (2016) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
cutaneous leishmaniasis rodent burrows spatial analysis Golestan Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Sofizadeh A, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Rafizadeh S. Spatial Analyses of the Relation between Rodent’s Active Burrows and Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golestan Province, Northeastern of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2016;10(4):569-576.