Disappearance of An. minimus and An. dirus from Certain Malaria Endemic Areas of Assam, India
AbstractBackground: Orang Primary Health Centre (OPHC) and Balipara Primary Health Centre (BPHC) of Assam (India) report mosquito borne diseases annually. Current study was performed to ascertain the prevalence of known malaria and Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vectors and their possible role in disease transmission.Methods: Malaria epidemiological data for 2006–2010 and JE data for 2008–2013 of Assam, India were obtained from the health authority. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC light traps and identified morpho-taxonomically.Results: Plasmodium falciparum cases (81.5%, 95% CI= 72.0–91.1) were statistically higher in OPHC (P< 0.0001, t= 8.0) during the recent years. There was 4.4 folds rise in the confirmed acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and 3.2 folds increase in the confirmed JE cases during 2013 as compared to 2008. Altogether 9,218 mosquito specimens (PTND= 153.6), comprising of 44.1% anophelines (PTND= 67.7), 42.3% culicines (PTND= 65.0) and 9.5% mansonia (PTND= 14.6) were recorded. In BPHC, An. vagus was recorded in high density (P< 0.0001), whereas Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant JE vector (P= 0.04). In OPHC, among the known malaria vectors, the density of An. annularis was significantly high (P< 0.0001). However Culex bitaeniorhynchus was the predominant known JE vector (P< 0.0001) followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Even in the absence of known efficient vectors, many Anopheles species are still involved in malaria transmission. There was disappearance of An. minimus and An. dirus and establishment of An. annularis, An. vagus and An. philippinensis/nivipes mosquitoes in study area.
Alam MS, Chakma S, Khan WA, Glass GE, Mohon AN, Norris LC, Podder MP, Norris DE, Ahmed S, Haque R, Sack DA, Elahi R, Sullivan David J Jr (2012) Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh. Parasit Vect.5: 150.
Alam MS, Khan MG, Chaudhury N, Deloer S, Nazib F, Bangali AM, Haque R (2010) Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in ep- idemic-prone border areas of Bangla- desh. Malaria J. 9: 15.
Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Peiris JSM, Wirtz R (1991) Anopheline ecol- ogy and malaria infection during the irrigation development of an area of the Mahaweli project, Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 45: 226–235.
Barraud PJ (1934) The Fauna of British In- dia, Including Ceylon and Burma. Dip- tera. Vol V. Family Culicidae. Tribes Megarhinini and Culicini. Taylor and Francis, London.
Bhattacharyya DR, Prakash A, Sarma NP, Mohapatra PK, Singh S, Sarma DK, Kalita MC, Mahanta J (2010) Molecu- lar evidence for the involvement of Anopheles nivipes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the transmission of Plasmodium fal- ciparum in north-eastern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 104(4): 331–336.
Das NG, Talukdar PK, Das SC (2004) Epi- demiological and entomological aspects of malaria in forest fringed villages of Sonitpur district, Assam. J Vect Borne Dis. 41: 5–9.
Dev V, Bhattacharyya PC, Talukdar R (2003) Transmission of malaria and its control in the North-eastern region of India. J Assoc Physician India. 51: 1073–1076.
Dev V, Sangma BM, Dash AP (2010) Per- sistent transmission of malaria in Garo hills of Meghalaya bordering Bangla- desh, northeast India. Malaria J. 9:263.
Dhiman S, Gopalakrishnan R, Goswami D, Das NG, Baruah I, Rabha B, Talukdar PK, Singh L (2009) Diversity, spatio- temporal distribution and biting activ- ity of mosquitoes in Tripura State, In- dia. Entomon. 34(4): 223–232.
Dhiman S, Bhola RK, Goswami D, Rabha B, Kumar D, Baruah I, Singh L (2012) Polymerase chain reaction detection of human host preference and Plasmo- dium parasite infections in field collect- ed potential malaria vectors. Pathog Glob Health. 106(3): 77–80.
Dhiman S, Gopalakrishnan R, Goswami D, Rabha B, Baruah I, Singh L (2011) Malaria incidence among paramilitary personnel in an endemic area of Trip- ura. Indian J Med Res. 133: 665–669.
Dhiman S, Rabha B, Goswami D, Das NG, Baruah I, Bhola RK, Veer V (2014) In- secticide resistance and human blood meal preference of Anopheles annularis in Asom-Meghalaya border area, north- east India. J Vect Borne Dis. 51: 133–135.
Dhiman S, Rabha B, Talukdar PK, Das NG, Yadav K, Baruah I, Singh L, Veer V (2013) DDT and deltamethrin resistance status of known Japanese encephalitis vectors in Assam, India. Indian J Med Res. 138(6): 988–994.
Kanojia PC (2007) Ecological study on mosquito vectors of Japanese enceph- alitis virus in Bellary district, Karna- taka. Indian J Med Res. 126: 152–157.
Nath MJ, Bora A, Talukdar PK, Das NG, Dhiman S, Baruah I, Singh L (2012) A longitudinal study of malaria associ- ated with deforestation in Sonitpur dis- trict of Assam, India. Geocarto Int. 27 (1): 79–88.
Nath MJ, Bora AK, Yadav K, Talukdar PK, Dhiman S, Baruah I, Singh L (2013) Prioritizing areas for malaria control using geographical information system in Sonitpur district, Assam, India. Pub- lic Health. 127: 572–578.
National vector Borne Disease Control Pro- gramme: Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. 2014. Availa- ble at: http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in (as- sessed on 24 June 2015).
Prakash A, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J (2004) Role of the pre- valent Anopheles species in the trans- mission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in Assam state, north-eastern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 98(6):559–568.
Prothero RM (1999) Malaria, Forest and People in Southeast Asia. Singap J Trop Geogr. 20: 76–85.
Rabha B, Goswami D, Dhiman S, Talukdar PK, Das NG, Baruah I, Bhola RK, Singh L (2012) A cross sectional in- vestigation of malaria epidemiology among seven tea estates in Assam, In- dia. J Parasit Dis. 36(1): 1–6.
Sarma DK, Prakash A, O'Loughlin SM, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Bhattacharjee K, Das K, Singh S, Sar- ma NP, Ahmed GU, Walton C, Ma- hanta J (2012) Genetic population struc- ture of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mito- chondrial DNA. Malaria J. 11: 76.
Saxena V, Dhole TN (2008) Preventive strat- egies for frequent outbreaks of Japa- nese encephalitis in Northern India. J Biosci. 33: 505–514.
Wattal BL, Kalra NL (1961) Region-wise pictorial keys to the female Indian anophelines. Bull Natl Soc Mal Mosq Dis. 9: 85–138.
Yadav K, Nath MJ, Talukdar PK, Saikia PK, Baruah I, Singh L (2012) Malaria risk areas of Udalguri district of Assam, India: a GIS-based study. Int J Geogr Inf Sci. 26(1): 123–131.
Yadav K, Dhiman S, Rabha B, Saikia PK, Veer V (2014) Socio-economic deter- minants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India. Infect Dis Poverty. 3: 19.