Stability and Wash Resistance of Local Made Mosquito Bednets and Detergents Treated with Pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi
AbstractBackground: We aimed to evaluate different fibres of bednets impregnated with various pyrethroids. The stability of insecticide on the bednet was measured using different methods of washings as well as local made detergents.Methods: The entire test was carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. In addition, the impact of the numbers of washes on the stability of the insecticides was determined. Permethrin 10% (EC), deltamethrin 10% (SC), lambdacyhalothrin 2.5% (CS) and cyfluthrin 5% (EW) were used at the recommended dosages. Three different local detergents were used. Two kinds of washing methods (shaking, no shaking) were used and in each method four kinds of washings, i.e. no wash, one wash, two washes and three washes was done. The main malaria vectors, Anopheles stephensi, which is susceptible to all insecticides (BEECH strain), was tested with impregnated bednets in 3 minutes exposure time and the mortality was measured after 24 hours recovery period. Knock-down was measured as well using appropriate statistical methods.Results: Lambdacyhalothrin has saved its insecticidal impact after being washed, whereas, deltamethrin has lost its activity faster than other insecticides. Tow other insecticides had moderate effect. Golnar soap detergent has least effect on the durability of insecticides, but the Shoma had the most. Whit increasing the times of washing, insecticidal effects was decreased , but shaking had no influence on the decreasing of the quality of insecticidal impact.Conclusion: Results will be useful for local people who wish to use pyrethroid-impregnated bednets with their own local made detergent and bednets.
Abbott WS (1965) A method of comparing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Eco Entomol. 18: 265–267.
Davarai B, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Sha- eghi M, Oshaghi MA, Basseri HR, Enayati AA, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Akbarzadeh K (2006) Com- parative efficacy of different imagicides against different strains of Anopheles ste- phensi in the malarious areas of Iran,2004-2005. Pakistan J Biological Sci.9(5): 885–892.
Enayati AA, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Townson H, Hemingway J (2003) Mo- lecular evidence for a Kdr-like pyrethroid resistance mechanism in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Med Vet Entomol. 17(2): 138–144.
Jinjiang XU, Meiluao Z, Xintu L, Rangen G, Shi Xian P, Shuyou L (1988) Evalua- tion of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets against mosquito in China. WHO/ VBC/88-96.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Jafari R (2006) Susceptibility status of An. dthali and An. fluviatilis to commonly used larvicides in an endemic focus of malaria, southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 43:34–38.
Kayedi MH, Lines JD, Haghdoost AA, Vatan- doost MH, Rassi Y, Khamisabady K (2008) Evaluation of the effects of re- peated hand washing, sunlight, smoke and dirt on the persistence of deltame- thrin on insecticide-treated nets. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 102: 811–816.
Li Z, Jingjiang X, Banquan L, Taihua Z, Mingxin L (1987) Mosquito nets impreg- nated whit deltamethrin against malaria vectors in China. WHO/VBC/87-93.
Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM (1992) A review of malaria in Iran, 1957–1990. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 8(4): 381-385.
Miller JE, Lindsay SW, Armestrong JRM (1991) Experimental hut trials of bed- nets impregnated with synthetic pyre- throid or organophosphate insecticide for mosquito control in the Gambia. Med Vet Entomol. 5: 465–476.
Moosa-Kazemi SH, Yaghoobi-Ershadir MR, Akhavan AA, Abdoli H, Zahraei-Ra- mazani AR, Jafari R, Houshmand B, Nadim A, Hosseini M (2007) Deltame- thrin impregnated bed nets and curtains in an anthroponotic cutaneaous leishma- niasis control programme in north-east- ern Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 27(1): 6–12.
Naddaf SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, As- mar M (2003) Molecular characteriza- tion of the Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in Iran. WHO Eastern Mediterr Hlth J. 9(3): 257–265.
Oshaghi MA, Moradi MT, Taghilo B (2004) Specific detection of malaria parasites us- ing nested- PCR in individual mosqui- toes and infected bloods in Chabahar and Iranshar, Iran. Hakim. 7(3): 24–31.
Oshaghi MA, Taghilo B, Moradi MT, Vatan- doost H (2004) Mosquitoes of Anophe- les culicifacies complex, species A and B in Baluchistan using mtDNA PCR- RFLP assay: the first report of species B from Iran. Hakim. 7(1): 35–41.
Oshaghi MA, Chavshin AR, Vatandoost H, Yaaghoobi F, Mohtarami F, Noorjah N. (2006a). Effects of postingestion and phy- sical conditions on PCR amplification of host blood meal DNA in mosquitoes. Exp Parasitol. 112: 232–236.
Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi F, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Akbar Zadeh K (2006b). Anopheles stephensi biological forms, geographi- cal distribution, and malaria transmis- sion in malarious regions in Iran. Paki- stan J Biological Sci. 9(2): 294–298.
Raeisi A, Shahbazi A, Ranjbar M, Shoghli A, Vatandoost H, Faraji L (2004) Na- tional Strategy Plan for Malaria Con- trol (I.R. Iran, 2004–2008). Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran Publication. Tehran, Iran.
Rafinejad J, Vatandoost H, Nikpoor F, Abai MR, Shaeghi M, Duchen S, Rafi F (2008) Effect of washing on the bioef- ficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi by three bioassay methods. J Vector Borne Dis. 45:143–150.
Rozendaal JA, Curtis CF (1989) Recent re- search on impregnated mosquito nets. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 5: 500–506.
Schreck CF, Posey K, Smith D (1978) Dura- bility of permethrin as a potential cloth- ing treatment to protect against blood feeding arthropods. Med Vet Entomol.71(3): 397–400.
Snow RW, Jawara M, Curtis CF (1987) Ob- servation on Anopheles gambiae during a trial of permethrin treated bednets in Gambia. Bull Entomol Res. 77: 279–286.
Vatandoost H, Borhani N (2004) Suscep- tibility and Irritability levels of main ma- laria vectors to synthetic pyrethroids in the endemic areas of Iran. Acta Med Iran.42(4): 240–247.
Vatandoost H (2001) Irritability level of Ano- pheles sephensi in Iran (2001) Iranian J Pub Hlth. 30(1-4): 27–30.
Vatandoost H, Gholizadeh MR, Abai MR, Djavadian E (2006a) Laboratory effi- cacy of protection rate of torn nets treated with pyrethroids, cufluthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin against Anopheles ste- phensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Biological Sci. 6(2): 331–336.
Vatandoost H, Oshaghi M, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaghoobi F, Baghai M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Zamain G, Townson H (2006b) Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan pro- vince, southern Iran. Acta Trop. 97(2): 196-205.
Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abaie MR, Aflatoonian MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi
I (2005) Monitoring of insecticides re- sistance in main malaria vectors in a ma- larious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman province, southeastern Iran. (2005). J Vector Borne Dis. 42(3): 100–108.
Vatandoost H, Moinvaziri VM (2004) Lar- vicidal activity of neem tree extract (Nee- marin) against mosquito larvae in the Is- lamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Me- diterr Hlth J. 10(4): 573–578.
Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Zamani G (2004) Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan province and their suscep- tibility to different larvicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med and Public Hlth. 35(2):22–25.
Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd, AA (2005) Cur- rent resistant status of Anopheles ste- phensi Liston to different larvicides in Hormozgan province, southeastern Iran. Pakistan J Biological Sci. 8(11): 1568–1570.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Jalai-Zand AR, Akhavan AA, Arandain MH, Abdoli H, Houshmand B, Nadim A, Hosseini M (2006) Evaluation of deltamethrin-im- pregnated bed nets and curtains for con- trol of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area of Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 99(1): 43–48.
Zaim M, Aitio A, Nakashima N (2000) Safety of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets. Med Ve Entomol. 14(1): 1–5.
Zaim M, Manouchehri AV, Motabar M, Emadi AM, Nazari M, Pakdad K, Kayedi MH, Mowlaii G (1995) Anopheles culicifa- cies in Baluchistan, Iran. Med Vet En- tomol. 9(2): 181–186.
Zahirnia AH, Vatandoost H, Nateghpour M, Javadian E (1998) Insecticide resistance/ susceptibility monitoring in Anopheles pulcherrimus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghas- reghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran, 1997. Hakim. 1(2): 97-106.
Zahirnia, AH, Taherkhani H, Vatandoost H (2001) Observation of malaria sporozoite in Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Cu- licidae) in Ghasreghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan province. Hakim. 4(2): 149–153.
World Health Organization (1997) Guidelines on the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets for the prevention and control of malaria in Africa. CTD/MAL/AFRO/97.4.
World Health Organization (1998) Test pro- cedure for insecticide resistance monitor- ing in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides on treated surfaces, WHO/CDS/CPC/MAL/98.12.
World Health Organization (1989) The use of impregnated bednets and other material for vector-borne diseases control. WHO/ VBC/89-91.
World Health Organization (2001) Specifica- tions For Netting Materials, Roll Back Malaria, WHO/CDS/RBM/2001.World Health Organization (2002) Malaria vec- tor control, decision making criteria and procedures for judicious use of insec- ticides, By; D JA Najera and Dr M Zaim. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/2002.5.
World Health Organization (2005) Guideline for laboratory and field testing of long- lasting insecticidal mosquito nets. WHO/ CDS/WHOPES/GCFDPP/2005.11.
|Issue||Vol 3 No 1 (2009)|
|pyrethroid malaria vector bednet. Anopheles stephensi|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|