Antivenom Efficacy in Neutralizing Histopathological Complications Following Latrodectus dahli Envenomation
AbstractBackground: Nowadays use of specific antivenin for latrodectism is considered as the most effective treatment in the world. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific antivenom against histopathological complications caused by Latrodectus dahli venom on liver, heart and kidneys tissues within 72 h.Methods: Two groups were selected, each one contained 6 male New Zealand rabbits weighing 2±0.5 kg. The animals were anesthetized with 0.5 ml ketamine and 0.5 ml xylazine by intramuscular route. The L. dahli venom (0.5 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to both the groups. The second group of rabbits 24 h after the venom injection received specific antivenom by intravenous route. Seventy-two hours after the venom and antivenom injections, the rabbits were dissected to obtain heart, liver and kidney tissues. The tissues were stained by hematoxylin and eosin stains and histopathological studies were examined by optical microscope.Results: In group one, the venom induced myocytolysis, myocarditis, coagulation necrosis in the heart tissue and the liver tissue showed central vein congestion, congested vessels, dilated sinusoids and inflammation. However, no significant histopathological complications were observed in kidney tissues. In the second group, antivenom injection greatly prevented escalation of the complications on foresaid tissues.Conclusion: Latrodectus dahli venom induces histopathological complications on vital organs. Specific antivenom injection, 24 h after the venom injection, could protect the tissues from incidence and intensification of histopathological complications. Future studies in human beings should be conducted to assess the protection against the specific-Latrodectus antivenin.
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