Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Wild-Caught Sand Fly Populations Collected from Two Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas in Western Turkey
AbstractBackground: In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibility tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas.Methods: Insecticide susceptibility of wild-caught sand flies to deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) using ready-to use impregnated insecticide papers of WHO was investigated in 2010 based on knockdown time using standard WHO tube-test kit and procedures. Sand flies used in this study were collected from villages of Aydin (Bascayır) and Mugla (Tepecik).Results: The resistance and early resistance were detected on the sand fly population from Mugla province against deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. However, populations from Aydin Province were sensitive to both insecticides.Conclusion: The resistance against deltamethrin and permethrin was detected on sand fly population in Mugla Province where both insecticides have been applied for long time while no resistance was found in the insecticide free area, Aydin Province. These findings can be an indicator for showing the ability for developing the insecticide resistance in sand flies. Because of the presence and dominancy of vector sand fly species of Leishmania infantum (Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi) in both study areas, the systematic monitoring for resistance of sand fly populations and more attention are needed by the authorities involved in control programs for sand fly-borne diseases.
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