Applying Morphometric Variation of Seta 2 (Antepalmate Hair) among the Larvae of the Members of the Maculipennis Subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran


The members of Anopheles maculipennis subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most important vectors of malaria in the north, west, and central plateau of Iran. This study was carried out to differentiate the species composition of this subgroup based on morphometric variation seta 2-IV and V (antepalmate hair) among 149 larval specimens that were deposited at the Medical Arthropods Museum, the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences by using the light micro¬scope. The mean numbers of larval seta 2-IV and V of the specimens belong to different locations of Iran, were calculated by SPSS (11.5) software package, followed by cluster analysis, and four different groups (clusters) were identified. The means were compared with the similar and available published data. After analyzing, four clusters recognized. The first cluster was fitted in ten localities in Esfahan, East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Khorassan, Kurdistan, and Mazandaran Provinces with its mean and standard deviation (SD) of 14.89±1.13 (n= 79); the second group with one location in Gilan Province (11±1.58, no= 5); the third one with two locations in Fars and Western Azarbaijan Provinces (27.43±0.31, n=20), and the final group with four locations in Khuzestan, West Azarbaijan, and Qazvin Provinces (36.84±1.91, n= 45) were identified and corresponded to Anopheles messeae, An. atroparvus, An. melanoon, and An. sacharovi respectively. This work provides comparative information on the Maculipennis Subgroup based on morphometric examination at the larval stage in Iran.

Abul-hab J (1955) The differentiation of larval population of An. sacharovi and An. macu- lipennis Meigen in north Iraq. Bull End Dis.1: 265-273.

Alten B, Caglar SS, Özel O (2000) Malaria and its vectors in Turkey. Eur Mosq Bull. 7: 27-33.

Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Rassaei AR, Mosslem M, Mousavi-Eivanaki E (2003) Mosquito fauna of the genus Anopheles (Dip- tera: Culicidae) in Gilan province. Modarres J Med Sci. 6: 11-22 [in Persian with English abstract].

Bates M (1939) Variation in the antepalmate hairs of larvae of the Anopheles maculipen- nis group. Riv Malariol. 18: 299-312.

Boccolini D, Sabatini A, Coluzzi M (1986) Valore diagnostico del numero dei rami delle setole antepalmate per l’identificazione del com-plesso Anopheles maculipennis. An- nali d’Instituto Superiore di Sanità. 22: 201-4.

Collins FH, Paskewitz SM (1996) A review of the use of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to differ- entiate among cryptic Anopheles species. Insect Mol Biol. 5: 1-9.

de Buck A, Schoute E, Sewllengrebel NH (1934) Cross-breeding experiments with Dutch and foreign races of Anopheles macu- lipennis. Riv Malariol. 12: 237-263.

Deruaz D, Deruaz J, Pichot J (1991) Corre- spondence analysis of larval chaetotaxy in the "Anopheles maculipennis complex" (Dip- tera: Culicidae). Ann Parasitol Hum Comp.66: 166-172.

de Zulueta JD, Jolivet P, Thymakis K, Caprari P (1957) Seasonal variation in susceptibility to DDT of Anopheles maculipennis in Iran. Bull WHO. 16: 475-479.

de Zulueta J, Ramsdale CD, Cianchi R, Bullini L, Coluzzi M (1983) Observations on the taxonomic status of Anopheles sicaulti. Paras- sitologia. 23: 73-92.

Dinparast-Jadid N, Manouchehri AV (1990) Study of the Anopheles maculipennis com- plex ecology in northern Iran. First Iranian Cong Med Parasitol, Rasht, p.106 [In Persian]. Dinparast-Jadid N, Gordiev M, Townson H (2001) Molecular key to Anopheles macu- lipennis species complex and its application

for malaria control in the costal area of Caspian Sea. 3rd Iranian Cong Med Parasi- tol, 2001, Sari, p.108 [In Persian].

Dinparast-Jadid N, Gholizadeh S, Tafsiri E, Romi R, Gordeev M, Zakeri S (2007) Mo- lecular Identification of Palaearctic mem- bers of An. maculipennis in northern Iran. Mal J. 6: 6.

Dow RP (1953) Notes on Iranian mosquitoes.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2: 683-693. Etherington D, Sellick G (1946) Notes on the bionomics of An. sacharovi in Persia and Iraq. Bull Entomol Res. 37: 191-195.

Faghih MA (1969) [Malarialogy and Malaria Eradication]. Tehran University Press, Tehran. Falleroni D (1926) Fauna anofelica italiana e suo 'habitat' (paludi, risaie, canali). Metodi di lotta contro la malaria. Riv Malariol. 5:553-559.

Gholizadeh S, Tafsiri E, Zakeri S, Dinparast- Jadid N (2004) Molecular identification of a new species to Iranian anopheline fauna of Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae). The 13th Iranian Congress on Infec Dis and Trop Medicine, 2004, Tehran. p.197 [in Persian].

Glick JI (1992) Illustrated key to the female Anopheles of south western Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst. 24: 125- 40. Gordeev MI, Zvantsov AB, Goriacheva II, Shaikevich YV, Ezhov MN (2005) De- scription of the new species Anopheles ar- temievi sp. n. (Diptera, Culicidae). Med Pa-razitol. 2: 4-5.

Harbach RE (2004) The classification of genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae): a working hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull Entomol Res. 94: 537-553.

Jaenson TGT, Lokki J, Saura A (1986) Anophe- les (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria in north- ern Europe, with special reference to Swe- den. J Med Entomol. 23: 68-75.

Jetten TH, Takken W (1994) Anophelism With- out Malaria in Europe. A Review of the Ecology and Distribution of the Genus Anopheles in Europe. Wageningen Agricul- tural University Papers. 94-95.

Kampen H (2005) The ITS2 ribosomal DNA of Anopheles beklemishevi and further remarks on the phylogenetic relationships within the Anopheles maculipennis group of species (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 97: 118-128.

Kasap M (1990) Comparison of experimental infectivity and development of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles sacharovi and An. su- perpictus in Turkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg.42: 111-117.

Linton YM, Samanidou-Voyadjoglou A, Harbach RE (2002a) Ribosomal ITS2 sequence data for Anopheles maculipennis and An. messeae in northern Greece, with a critical assessment of previously published sequences. Insect Mol Biol. 11: 379-383.

Linton Y-M, Smith L, Harbach RE (2002b) Taxonomic observations on the status of Anopheles subalpinus Hackett and Lewis,1935 and An. melanoon Hackett, 1934 in Greece. Eur Mosq Bull. 13: 1-7.

Linton Y-M, Smith L, Koliopoulos G, Samani- dou-Voyadjoglou A, Zounos AK, Harbach RE (2003) Morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheles (Anopheles) maculipennis Meigen, type species of the genus and nominotypical member of the Maculipennis Complex. Syst Entomol. 28:39-55.

Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM (1992) A review of malaria in Iran, 1975-90. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 4: 381-385.

Marinucci M, Romi R, Mancini P, Di Luca M, Severini C (1999). Phylogenetic relationships of seven Palaearctic members of the maculi- pennis complex inferred from ITS2 se- quence analysis. Insect Mol Biol. 8: 469-480.

Martini E (1933) The hypopygia of certain Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomol Soc Washington. 35: 61-67.

Mer G (1937) Variations saisonnières des ca- ractères de Anopheles elutus en Palestine. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 30: 38-43.

Minar J (1974) Results of the Czecholovak- Iranian entomological expedition to Iran 1970. Diptera: Culicidae. Acta Ent Musei Nat Pragae. 6: 87-89.

Missiroli A, Hackett LW, Martini E (1933) Le razze di Anopheles maculipennis e la loro importanza nella distribuzione della malaria in alcune regioni d’Europa. Riv Malariol. 12:10-56.

Momeni S (1991) Distribution of Anopheles maculipennis complex in Gilan and Mazan- daran provinces and determination of sus- cep-tibility to insecticides in Mazandaran [MSc thesis]. School of Public Health, Te- hran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Momeni S, Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Mot- taghi M (1992) The distinguish between the species of Anopheles maculipennis complex by using of egg characters in Gilan and

Mazandaran provinces, northern areas of Iran 1990-91. Iranian Cong Malaria, Zahedan, p. 29.

Nicolescu G, Linton Y-M, Vladimirescu A, Howard TM, Harbach RE (2004) Mosqui- toes of the Anopheles maculipennis group (Diptera: Culicidae) in Romania, with the dis- covery and formal recognition of a new spe- cies based on molecular and morphological evidence. Bull Entomol Res. 94: 525-535.

Oshaghi MA Sedaghat MM, Vatandoost H (2003) Molecular characterization Anophe- les maculipennis complex in the Islamic republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9:659-666.

Pichot, J, Deruaz D (1981) Les Anopheles du complex Maculipennis dans la region Lyonnaise. Lyon Mèdical. 245: 117-121.

Proft J, Maier WA, Kampen H (1999) Iden- tification of six sibling species of the Ano- pheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Cu- licidae) by a polymerase chain reaction as- say. Parasitol Res. 85: 837-843.

Ribeiro H, Ramos HC, Pires CA, Capela RA (1988) An annotated checklist of the mos- quitoes of continental Portugal (Diptera, Cu- licidae). Actas III Congreso Ibérico de En- tomologia. 3: 233-254.

Romi R (1999) Anopheles labranchiae, an im- portant malaria vector in Italy, and other potential malaria vectors in Southern Europe. Eur Mosq Bull. 4: 8-10.

Romi R, Boccolini D, Di Luca M, La Rosa G, Marinucci M (2000) Identification of the sibling species of the Anopheles maculipen- nis complex by heteroduplex analysis. In- sect Mol Biol. 9: 509-513.

Romi R, Sabatinelli G, Majori G (2001) Could malaria reappear in Italy? Emerg Infect Dis.7: 915-919.

Romi R, Boccolini D, Horanesyan I, Grigoryan G, Diluca M, Sabatinelli G (2002) Anophe- les sacharovi (Diptera: Culicidae): a re- emerging malaria vector in the Ararat Valley of Armenia. J Med Entomol. 39: 47-50.

Sedaghat MM (2003) Molecular characterisa- tion and species distribution of Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran [PhD dissertation]. School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci- ences, Iran [In Persian].

Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Oshaghi, MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003a) The Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran: molecular characteriza- tion and recognition of a new species. Bull Entomol Res. 93: 527-535.

Sedaghat MM, Linton Y-M, Nicolescu G, Smith L, Koliopoulos G, Zounos AK, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003b) Morphological and molecular char- acterization of Anopheles (Anopheles) sa- charovi Favre, a primary vector of malaria in the Middle East. Syst Entomol. 28: 241-256.

Sedaghat MM, Harbach RE (2005) An anno- tated checklist of the Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Vect Ecol.30: 272-276.

Shahgudian ER (1960) A key to the Anopheli- nes of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 3: 38- 48.

Stegnii VN (1981) Genetic bases of evolution of malaria mosquitoes Anopheles from the maculipennis species complex (Diptera, Cu- licidae): I. Chromosome phylogenetic rela- tions. Zool Zh. 60: 69-77.

Suzzoni-Blatger J, Sevin A (1981) Étude de la chétotaxie larvaire du complexe macu- lipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) dans la région Toulousaine. Annal Parasitol. 57: 640-654.

Suzzoni-Blatger J, Cianchi R, Bullini L, Coluzzi M (1990) Le complexe maculipennis: critè- res morphologiques et enzymatiques de dé- termination. Annal Parasitol Hum Comp.65: 37-40.

Ungureanu E, Shute PG (1947) The value of the wing scales as an aid to the taxonomy of adult Anopheles maculipennis. The Pro- ceedings of the Royal Entomol Soc London, Series B, Taxonomy. 16: 79-85.

van Thiel PH (1927) Sur l’origine des varia- tions de taille de l’Anopheles maculipennis dans les Payes-Bas. Bull Soc Pathol Exot.20: 366-390.

White GB (1978) Systematic reappraisal of Anopheles maculipennis complex. Mosq Syst.10: 13- 44.

IssueVol 1 No 1 (2007) QRcode
Maculipennis group Malaria Mosquito Numerical taxonomy Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Doosti S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi M, Hosseini M, Sedaghat M. Applying Morphometric Variation of Seta 2 (Antepalmate Hair) among the Larvae of the Members of the Maculipennis Subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 1;1(1):28-37.