Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

  • Hazrat Bilal Mail Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Waseem Akram Department of Agri Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Soaib Ali Hassan Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Sadur Din Water, Agriculture and Technology Transfer Program, Kabul, Afghanistan
Citrus cultivars, Aedes aegypti larvae


Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm), while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi) had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm) after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.


World Health Organization (2014) Den-gue and severe dengue Fact sheet No 117. ( fact sheets/fs117/en/).

Chan YC, Salahuddin NI, Khan J, Tan HC, Seah CL, Li J (1995) Dengue haemor-ragic fever outbreak in Karachi Paki-stan 1994. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 89: 619–620.

Anonymous (2010) Weekly Epidemiolog-ical Bulletin special supplement report. 2(3): 1.

Anonymous (2011) Weekly Epidemiolog-ical Bulletin report. 2(45): 1–6.

World Health Organization (2013) (http:// 6. Osorio JE, Brewoo JN, Silengo SJ, Ar-guello J, Moldovan IR, Tary-Lehmann M, Powell TD, Livengood JA, Kinney RM, Huang CY, Stinchcomb DT (2011) Ef-ficacy of a Tetravalent Chimeric Den-gue Vaccine (DENVax) in Cynomolgus Macaques. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 84(6): 978–87. 7. Corbel V, Duchon S, Zaim M, Hougand JM (2004) Dinotefuran: A potential neo nic-otinoid insecticide against resistant mos-quitoes. J Med Entomol. 41: 712–717. 8. Becker N, Dušan P, Marija Z, Clive B, Minoo M, Christine D, Achim K (2010) Mosquito and their Control, 2nd Edi-tion. Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht. London, New York. (e-ISBN 978-3-540-92874-4). 9. Severini C, Rom R, Marinucci M, Rajmond M (1993) Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of Culex pipiens from Italy. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 9: 164–168. 10. Mittal PK, Subbarao SK (2003) Pro-spects of using herbal products in the control of mosquito vector. ICMR Bul-letin. 33: 1–10.

Elango G, Abdul R, Chinnaperumal K, Asokan B, Abdul AZ (2011) Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against ma-larial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi. Parasitol Res. 108: 1437–1445.

Govindarajan M (2011) Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 109: 93–103.

Pitarokili D, Antonios M, George K, Athanassios G, Olga T (2011) Chemical composition, larvicidal evaluation, and adult repellency of endemic Greek Thy-mus essential oils against the mosquito vector of West Nile virus. Parasitol Res. 109: 425–430.

Rahuman AA, Geetha G, Venkatesan P, Kannappan G (2008) Isolation and iden-tification of mosquito larvicidal com-pound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet. Parasitol Res. 102(5): 981– 988.

Muthukrishnan J, Puspalatha E (2001) Ef-fects of plant extracts on fecundity and fertility of mosquitoes. J Appl Entomol. 125: 31–35.

Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpana-than T (2008) Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. Leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Res. 102: 289–292.

Akram W, Khan HAA, Hafeez F, Bilal H, Kim YK, Lee JJ (2010) Potential of citrus seed extracts against dengue fe-ver mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Culicidae: Diptera). Pak J Botany. 42 (4): 3343–3348.

Shaalan EAS, Canyon DV, Bowden B, Younes MWF, Abdet WH, Mansoin AH (2006) Efficacy of botanical ex-tracts from Callitris glaucophylla against Aedes aegypti and Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Trop Biomed. 2: 180–185.

Vogel AI (1978) Text Book of Practical Or-ganic Chemistry. The English Language Book Society and Longman, London.

Mohtar M, Yarmo M, Kardri A (1999) The effects of Warium indicum leaf extract on Aedes aegypti larvae. J Trop Forest Prod. 5: 87–92.

Capinera JL (2008) Encyclopedia of Ento-mology. Published by Springer. (ISBN: 978-1-4020-6242-1). p. 2.

World Health Organization (2005) Guide-lines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. WHO/CDS/WHO PES/GCDPP/2005.13, Geneva.

Minitab statistical software, releases 15 for Windows, State College, PA, 2009.

Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS (1977) Natu-ral Products and Plant Drugs with Pharmacological, Biological or Thera-peutic Activity. Springer, Berlin.

Fisher PR (1991) The role of gaseous metabolites in phototaxis by Dictyoste-lium discoideum slugs. FEMS Micro-biol Letter. 77: 117–120.

Khan HAA, Waseem A, Khurram S, Shaalan EA (2011) First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), from Pakistan. Pa-ra and Vec. 4: 146.

Hafeez F, Waseem A, Essam AS (2011) Mosquito larvicidal activity of citrus limonoids against Aedes albopictus. Parasitol Res. 109: 221–229.

Din S, Akram W, Khan HAA, Hussain A, Hafeez F (2011) Citrus Waste-derived essential oils: Alternative larvicides for dengue fever mosquito, Aedes albopic-tus (Skuse) (Culicidae: Diptera). Pak J Zool. 43(2): 367–372.

Sumroiphon S, Yuwaree C, Arunlertaree C, Komalamisra N, Rongsriyam Y (2006) Bioactivity of citrus seed for mosqui-to-borne diseases larval control. South-east Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 37(3): 123–127.

Amusan AA, Idowu AB, Arowolo FS (2005) Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves (Hyptissuaveolens) and orange peel (Citrus sinensis) oil extract on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Tanzan Health Res Bulletin. 7: 174–178.

Lee HS (2006) Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pal-lens. J American Mosq Control Assoc. 22: 292–295.

Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Abdul-Rahuman A, Elango G, Abduz-Zahir A, Pandiyan G (2008) Evaluation of larvicidal and nymphicidal potential of plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi, Cu-lex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Aphis gossypii Glover. Parasitol Res. 104(5): 1109–1117.

How to Cite
Bilal H, Akram W, Hassan SA, Din S. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 11(3):433-440.
Short Communication