Composition of Anopheles Species Collected from Selected Malarious Areas of Afghanistan and Iran
AbstractBackground: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries.Methods: Adults Anopheles spp. were collected from four provinces in Afghanistan (Badakhshan, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar) by pyrethrum spray catch, hand collection methods through WHO/EMRO coordination and from Chabahar County in Iran by pyrethrum spray catch method. Identification was performed using reliable identification key.Results: Totally, 800 female Anopheles mosquitos, 400 from each country were identified at species level. Anopheles composition in Afghanistan was An. superpictus, An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus. Most prevalent species in Badakhshan and Kunduz were An. superpictus, whereas An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus were respectively found in Nangarhar and Heart. Anopheles species in Chabahar County of Iran were An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. culicifacies and An. sergentii. The most prevalent species was An. stephensi.Conclusion: Current study provides a basis for future research such as detection of Plasmodium infection in collected samples which is on process by the authors, also for effective implementation of evidence-based malaria vector intervention strategies.
World Health Organization (2014b) World Malaria Report 2014. WHO Press, Switzerland.
Huldén L, Huldén L (2014) Checklist of the family Culicidae (Diptera) in Finland. ZooKeys. 441: 47–51.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian SH, Vatandoost H, Charrahy Z (2011) Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different cli-matic zones of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4(6): 498–504.
Azizi MH, Bahadori M (2013) Brief histor-ical perspectives of malaria in Iran. Arch Iran Med. 16(2): 131–135.
Stevenson J, Norris D (2017) Implicating cryptic and novel Anophelines as malaria vectors in Africa. Insects. 8(1): 1–18.
Omima M, Amany M (2015) Limited ge-netic diversity among Plasmodium fal-ciparium isolates using nested PCR in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 5(5): 407–411.
Chavshin AR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Raeisi A, Nikpoor F (2014) Molecular characterization, bio-logical forms and sporozoite rate of Anopheles stephensi in southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 4(1): 47–51.
Salmanzadeh Sh, Foroutan-Rad M, Khademvatan Sh, Moogahi S, Bigdeli Sh (2015) Significant decline of malaria incidence in Southwest of Iran (2001–2014). J Trop Med. 2015: ID: 523767.
World Health Organization (2014a) Mental health Atlas country profile 2014. Availa-ble at: http://www.who.int/mental_ health/ evidence/atlas/profiles-2014.
Akbari H, Majdzadeh R, Foroushani AR, Raeisi A (2013) Timeliness of malaria surveillance system in Iran. Iran J Pub-lic Health. 42: 39–47.
Hatam GR, Nejati F, Mohammadzadeh T, Shahriari-Rad R, Sarkari B (2015) Pop-ulation based seroprevalence of malaria n Hormozgan Province, Southeastern Iran: A low transmission area. Malar Res Treat. 2015: ID: 174570.
Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Vatandoost H, ZareM, TurkiH, Alizadeh A (2015) Topographical distribution of Anopheline mosquitoesin an area under elimination programme in the south of Iran. Malar J. 14: 262.
Nejati J, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA,Salehi M, Mozafari E, MoosaKazemiSH (2013) Some ecological attributes of malarial vector Anopheles superpictusGrassi in endemic foci in SoutheasternIran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed.3(12): 1003–1008.
World Health Organization (2015b) World Malaria Report 2015. WHO Press, Switzerland.
Azari-Hamidian S (2007) Checklist of Iranian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).J Vector Ecol. 32(2): 235–242.
Mehravaran A, Vatandoost H, OshaghiMA, Abai MR, Edalat H, Javadian E,Mashayekhi M, Piazak N, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2012) Ecology of Anopheles stephensi in a malarious area, southeast of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 50(1): 61–65.
Alegana VA, Wright JA, Nahzat SM, Butt W, Sediqi AW, Habib N, Robert W.Snow, Peter M. Atkinson, Abdisalan M.Noor (2014) Modeling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006–2009. PLoS One. 9(7): e102304.
Leslie T, Mohammed N, Omar H, Rasheed HU, Vorst F, Sediqi AM (2008) Malaria sentinel surveillance in Afghanistan. AfghanAnnu Malar J. 1: 114–128.
Peragallo MS, Sarnicola G, Boccolini D,Romi R, Mammana G (2014) Risk assessment and prevention of malaria among Italian troops in Afghanistan,2002 to 2011. J Travel Med. 21(1): 24–32.
Adimi F, Soebiyanto RP, Safi N, Kiang R (2010) Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing.Malar J. 9: 125.
Kassiri H, Javadian E, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2011) Faunistic survey of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Chabahar county,Southeast of Iran. J Exp Zool India.14(2): 663–666.
Shahgudian ER (1960) A key to the anophelines of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 3:38–48.
World Health Organization (2015a) Overview of malaria elimination. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/areas/
Oyewole IO, Ibidapo CA, Okwa OO,Oduola AO, Adeoye GO, Okoh HI,Awolola TS (2010) Species composition and role of Anopheles mosquitoes in Malaria transmission along Badagry axis of Lagos Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria.Int J Insect Sci. 2: 51–57.
Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost A, Gorouhi A,Abai MR, Madjidpour A, Arshi S,Sadeghi H, Nazari M, Mehravaran A (2011) Anopheline species compositionin borderline of Iran-Azerbaijan. Acta Trop. 119: 44–49.
Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM (1992) A review of malaria in Iran,1957–1990. J Am Mosq Control Assoc.8(4): 381–385.
Mehdipour D, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Hosseini M, Zolfi R (2013) Some ecologicalaspects of malaria vectors in saravan area, Iran. Arch Hyg Sci. 2(1): 31–40.
Edalat H, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Abolghasemi E, Khairandish S (2015) Vectorial capacity and age determination of Anopheles stephens Liston (Diptera:Culicidae), during the malaria transmissionin Southern Iran. J Entomol ZoolStud. 3(1): 256–263.
Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Vatandoost H,Shaeghi M, Raeisi A, Abedi F, Eshraghian MR, Madani A, Safari R, Shahi M, Mo-jahedi A, Poorahmad-Garbandi F (2012) Vector ecology and susceptibility in a malaria endemic focus in southern Is-lamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 18: 1034–1041.
Salahi-Moghadam A, Khoshdel AR, Barati M, Sedagbat MM (2014) An overview and mapping of Malaria and its vectors in Iran. Hormoz Med J. 18(5): 473–485.
Barik TK, Sahu B, Swain V (2009) A re-view on Anopheles culicifacies: from bionomics to control with special refer-ence to Indian subcontinent. Acta Trop. 109: 87–97.
Kadamov DS (2006) The bloodsucking mosquitoes (Culicidae) of North Afghan-istan. Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1: 59–60.
Brooker S, Leslie T, Kolaczinski K, Mohsen E, Mehboob N, Saleheen S, Khudonaza-rov J, Freeman T, Clements A, Rowland M, Kolaczinski J (2006) Spatial epide-miology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghan-istan. Emerg Infect Dis. 12(10): 1600–1602.
Ward RA (1972) Mosquito of Afghanistan –An annotated checklist. Mosq Syst. 4: 93–97.
Ahmad M, Buhler C, Pignatelli P, Ranson H, Nahzat SM, Naseem M, Farooq Saba-woon M, Siddiqi AM, Vink M (2016) Status of insecticide resistance in high risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan. Malar J. 15: 98.
Oshaghi MA, Yaghobi‑Ershadi MR, Shemshad K, Pedram M, Amani H (2008) The Anopheles superpictus complex: introduction of a new malaria vector complex in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 101: 429–434.
Harbach RE (2004) The classification of genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae): a working hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull Entomol Res. 94(6): 537–553.
Hwang UW (2007) Revisited ITS2 phylogeny of Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyr-canus group mosquitoes: reexamination of unidentified and misidentified ITS2 sequences. Parasitol Res. 101(4): 885–894.
Ponçon N, Toty C, Kengne P, Alten B, Fontenille D (2008) Molecular evi-dence for similarity between Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), sympatric potential vectors of malaria in France. J Med Entomol. 45(3): 576–580.
Azari-Hamidian S, Abai MR, Ladonni H, Vatandoost H, Akbarzadeh K (2006) Anopheles peditaeniatus (Leicester) new to the Iranian mosquito fauna with notes on Anopheles hyrcanus group in Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 22(1): 144–146.
Djadid ND, Jazayeri H, Gholizadeh S, Rad ShP, Zakeri S (2009) First record of a new member of Anopheles hyrca-nus Group from Iran: molecular identi-fication, diagnosis, phylogeny, status of kdr resistance and Plasmodium infection. J Med Entomol. 46(5): 1084–1093
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.