Frequency of Resistance and Susceptible Bacteria Isolated from Houseflies
AbstractBackground: In this study, we determine the vector competence of Musca domestica with reference to the transmission of susceptible and resistance bacterial strains in hospitals and slaughter house in Sanandaj City, west Iran.Methods: Totally 908 houseflies were collected to isolate bacteria from their external body based on standard procedures.Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar based on recommendations of CLSI (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards).Results: From collected houseflies, 366 bacteria species were isolated. The most common isolated bacterium at hospitals was Klebsiella pneumoniae 43.3% (n= 90) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 37% (n= 77), while that of slaughterhouse was Proteus mirabilis. 29.1% (n= 46) followed by Citrobacter freundii 28.4% (n= 45). Among all the isolates from hospitals, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and tetracycline, resistance rates were above 32.5% and gentamicin expressed the highest susceptibility among all the isolates from hospitals. It is worth to note that K. pneumoniae showed 61% and 44.5% resistance to cephalexin and chloramphenicol respectively. Similarly, all isolates from slaughterhouse were more than 28% and 30% resistant to cephalexin and chloramphenicol respectively. Surprisingly, among all the isolates, Citrobacter freundii were highly resistant to gentamicin.Conclusion: Houseflies collected from hospitals and slaughterhouse may be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and may increase the potential of human exposure to drug resistant bacteria.
Barin A, Arabkhazaeli F, Rahbari S and Ma- dani S (2010) The housefly, Musca do- mestica, as a possible mechanical vec- tor of Newcastle disease virus in the laboratory and field. Medical and Vet- erinary Entomology. 24(1): 88–90.
Fotedar R (2001) Vector potential of house- flies (Musca domestica) in the trans- mission of Vibrio cholerae in India. Acta Tropica. 78: 31–34.
Fotedar R, Banarjee U, Samantray J, Shrini- was S (1992a) Vector potential of the hospitals house flies with special refer- ence to Klebsiella species. Epidemiol and Infec. 109: 143–147.
Graczyk T, Cranfield R, Fayer R, Bixler H (1999) House flies (Musca domestica) as transport hosts of Cryptosporidium parvum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 61:500–504.
Graczyk T, Knight R, Gilman R Cranfield H (2001) The role of non-biting flies in the epidemiology of human infectious diseases. Microbes and Infection. 3: 231–235.
Kabkaew L, Manasanant B, Banyong K, Somsak P, Yupha R, and Kom S (2007) Comparison between Musca do- mestica and Chrysomya megacephala as carriers of bacteria in northern Thai- land. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 38(1): 38–44.
Kalantar E, Ekrami A (2008) Bacterial in- fection in burn patients. Indian J Med Res 127: 416.
Kalantar E, Motlagh M, Lordnejad H, Re- shamansh N (2008) Prevalence of uri- nary tract pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in children at 55 hospitals in Iran. Iranian J Clin Infect Dis. 3(3): 149–154.
Khalil K, Lindblom G, Mazhar K, Kaijsher B (1994) Flies and water as reservoirs for bacterial enteropathogens in urban and rural areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect. 113: 435–444.
Khoobdel M, Jonaidi N, Seiedi M (2008) Blowfly and flesh (Diptera: Cyclorrhpha)fauna in Tehran, Iran. J Entomology.5(3): 85–92.
Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WC Jr (1992) Diagnostic microbiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.
Mitchell J, Tali De-Medina, Yehuda C (2004) Epidemiological interpretation of antibiotic resistance studies: what are we missing? Nature Reviews Mi- crobiology. 2: 979–983.
Mutsuo Kobayashi, Toshinori Sasaki, No- riko Saito, Kazumichi Tamura, Kenji Suzuki Haruo Watanabe, and Noriaki Agu (1999) Houseflies: not simple me- chanical vectors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 61(4): 625–629.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (2003) Performance stan- dards for antimicrobial disc suscepti- bility tests, 8th ed. Approved standard M2-A8. 2003; National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa.
Olsen A (1998) Regulatory action criteria for filth and other extraneous materials. III. Review of flies and food-borne enteric diseases. Regulat Toxicol and Pharmacol. 28: 199–211.
Pandian R, Asumtha A (2001) Vector com- petence of Musca domestica Linn.in slum areas. Insect Environment. 7:118–119.
Peter S, Christopher J, Randle W, Moore S, Richard K (2007) Isolation of Salmo- nella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Houseflies (Musca domestica) Found in Rooms Containing Salmonella Se- rovar Enteritidis-Challenged Hens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 73(19): 6030–6035.
Rajendran J, Pandian R (2003) Microbial flora isolated from an urban population of non-biting vector Musca domestica and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Asian Journal Microbial Biotechnol and Environ Sc. 5: 381–385.
Rangrez A, Dayananda K, Atanur S, Joshi R, Patole L, Shouche Y (2006) Detection of Conjugation Related Type Four Se- cretion Machinery in Aeromonas cu- licicola. PLoS One. 1(1): 115.
Shears P (2000) Antimicrobial resistance in the tropics. Tropical Doctor. 30: 114–116.
Sramova H, Daniel M, Absolonova V, Dedi- cova D, Jedlickova Z, Lhotova H, Pet- ras P, Subertova V (1992) Epidemiol- ogical role of arthropods detectable in health facilities. J Hosp Infec. 20: 281–292.
Sulaiman S, Othman M, Aziz A (2000) Iso- lations of enteric pathogens from sy- nanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur. J Vect Ecolo. 25: 90–93.
Thaddeus K, Ronald K, Robert H, Gilman R, Cranfield S (2001) The role of non- biting flies in the epidemiology of hu- man infectious diseases. Micr Infect. 3:231P235.
Thirumalai Vasan, Immanual Gilwax, Selva- raj Pandian (2008) Vector competence of Musca domestica Linn. with refer- ence to the virulent strains of Salmo- nella typhi in bus stands and markets at Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Current Biotica.2(2): 154–160.
Vazirianzadeh B, Setareh S, Mahmoud R, Reza Hajhossien, Manijeh M (2008) Identification of bacteria which possi- ble transmitted by Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in the region of Ahvaz, SW Iran. Jundishapur J Mi- crobiol. 1(1): 28–31.
Zarrin M, Babak Vazirianzadeh, Setareh Shams Solary, Ali Zarei Mahmouda- bad, Mahmoud Rahdar (2007) Isolation Of fungi from housefly (Musca Do- mestica) in Ahwaz, Iran. Pak J Med Sci. 23(6): 917–919.
|Issue||Vol 4 No 2 (2010)|
|House fly bacterium antibacterial resistance hospitals slaughterhouse|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|