Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae) to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran

  • Yaser Salim-Abadi Department of Health Services and Health Promotion, School of Health, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  • Mohammad Asadpour Department of Health Services and Health Promotion, School of Health, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  • Iraj Sharifi Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
  • Mohammad Amin Gorouhi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health, Kerman University of Medi-cal Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Azim Paksa Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Zohre Tayyebi Student Research Committee, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  • Abbas Aghaei-Afshar Mail Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Keywords:
Susceptibility status, Resistance, Insecticide, Culex quinquefasciatus, Iran

Abstract

Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1%) were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50) and 90% mortality (LC90) of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.

References

Almeida APG, Galao RP, Sousa CA, Novo MT, Parreira R, Pinto J, Pie-dade J, Esteves A (2008) Potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses in Portugal: species, distribution, abundance and West Nile infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 102(8): 823–832.

Bhattacharya S, Basu P (2016) The South¬ern House Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus: profile of a smart vector. J Entomol Zool Stud. 4(2): 73–81.

Goddard LB, Roth AE, Reisen WK, Scott TW (2002) Vector compe¬tence of Cal¬ifornia mosquitoes for West Nile Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 8(12): 1385–1391.

Mullen GR, Durden L (2009) Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Mos-qui¬toes (Culicidae) Woodbridge A. Foster and Edward D Walter. Vol. 2. Else¬vier, Burlington.

Sakthivadivel M, Gunasekaran P, Siva¬-

kumar M, Samraj A, Arivoli S, Ten-nyson S (2014) Evaluation of Sola-numtrilobatum L. (Solanaceae) aeri-al extracts for mosquito larvi¬cidal activity against the filarial vector Culex quin¬quefasciatus Say (Diptera: Cu-licidae). J Entomol Zo¬ol Stud. 2(6): 102–106.

Salim-Abadi Y, Oshaghi MA, Enayati AA, Abai MR, Vatandoost H, Eshraghian MR (2016) High Insec¬ticides Re-sistance in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Cu¬licidae) from Tehran, Capital of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(4): 483–492.

Savage HM, Ggarwal DA, Apperson CS, Katholi CR, Gordon E, Hassan HK, Anderson M, Charnetzky D, McMillen L, Unnasch EA, Unnasch TR (2007) Host choice and West Nile virus in-fection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Cx. pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Ten¬nessee, 2002–2003. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 7(3): 365–386.

Vinogradova EB (2000) Cx. pipiens pipiens Mosquitoes: Taxonomy, Distribution Ecology, Physiology, Genetics and Control. Pensoft Pub-lish¬er, Sofia.

Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost A (2016) Laboratory Evaluation of Temeph¬os against Anopheles ste-phen¬si and Culex pipiens Larvae in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(4): 510–518.

Calhoun LM, Avery M, Jones L, Gun-arto K, King R, Roberts J, Burkot TR (2007) Combined sewage over-flows (CSO) are major urban breed-ing sites for Culex quinquefasciatus in Atlanta, Georgia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 77(3): 478–484.

Vatandoost H, Ezeddinloo L, Mahvi AH, Abai MR, Kia EB, Mobedi I (2004) Enhanced tolerance of house mosquito to different insecticides due to agricultural and household pesticides in sewage system of Teh-ran, Iran. Iran J

Environ Health Sci Eng. 1(1): 42–45.

Ben Cheikh II, Ben Ali-Haouas Z, Mar-

quine M, Pasteur N (1998) Re¬sistance to Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Insecticides in Culex pipiens (Dip-tera: Culicidae) from Tunisia. J Med Entomol. 35(3): 251–260.

Corbel V, N'Guessan R, Brengues C, Chandre F, Djogbenou L, Martin T, Akogbéto M, Hougard JM, Row¬land M (2007) Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefascia¬tus from Benin, West Africa. Acta Trop. 101: 207–216.

Gorouhi MA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Raeisi A, Enayati AA, Mir¬hendi H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Abai MR, Salim-Abadi Y, Rafi F (2016) Current Sus-ceptibility Status of Anopheles stephen¬si (Diptera: Cu¬licidae) to Different Ima-gicides in a Malarious Area, South-eastern of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(4): 493–500.

Farajollahi A, Fonseca DM, Kramer LD, Kilpatrick AM (2011) Bird bit¬ing mos-quitoes and human disease: a review of therole of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiolo¬gy. Infect Genet Evol. 11(7): 1577–1585.

Ataie A, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Vatan-doost H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Bakhshi H, Anjomruz M (2015) As-sessing the Susceptibility Status of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Dirofilariasis Focus, Northwestern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(1): 7–21.

Fathian M, Vatandoost H, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Raeisi A (2015) Sus¬ceptibility of Culicidae Mosquitoes to Some Insecticides Recommended by WHO in a Malaria Endemic Ar¬ea of Southeastern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9 (1): 22–34.

Lotfi MD, Manouchehri AV, Yazdan-panah H (1975) Resistance of Cx. pipienspipiens to DDT in Northern Iran, 1973. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 68(1): 91–93.

Naseri-Karimi N, Vatandoost H, Bagheri M, Chavshin AR (2015) Susceptibility status of Culex pipiens against deltamethrin and DDT, Urmia County, West Azerbai-jan Province, north¬western Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 5: 77–79.

Nazari M, Janbakhsh B (2000) a survey of the susceptibility level of Culex theileri and Cx. pipiens to DDT, Dieldrin, Propoxur and Malathion in the southern area of Tehran. J Uro-mia Univ Med Sci. 11(1): 13–19.

WHO (2013) Test procedures for in-sec¬ticide resistance monitoring in ma¬laria vector mosquitoes. World Health Organization, Geneva, Swit-zerland.

WHO (1981) Instruction for determin-ing the susceptibility or resistance of mos¬quito larvae to insecticides. WHO/ VBC/81.807.

WHO (2005) Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvi¬cides. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2005.3.

Finney JD (1971) Probit analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press.

Abbott WS (1925) A method of com-paring the effectiveness of an insec-ticide. J Econ Entomol. 18: 265–267.

Abuelmaali SA, Elaagip AH, Basheer MA, Afrah E, Ahmed FT, Elhaj HF, Seidahmed OM, Weetman D, Mah¬di Abdel Hamid M (2013) Impacts of agricultural practices on insecti¬cide re¬sistance in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum State, Su¬dan. PloS One. 8(11): e80549.

Diabate A, Baldet T, Chandre F, Akoobe¬to M, Guiguemde TR, Dar-riet F, Brengues C, Guillet P, Heming-way J, Small G, Hougard JM (2002) The role of agricultural use of insec-ticides in resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gam¬biaes.l. in Burkina Faso. Am

J Trop Med Hyg. 67: 617–622.

Tavakolian V, Karimifard M, Esmaeili A,

Hassanshahi GH, Vazirinejad R (2012) Pesticide induced complica¬tions among pistachio farmers: In the rural area of Rafsanjan, Iran. J Occup Health Epid. 1(2): 111–117.

Hardstone MC, Leichter CA, Scott J (2009) Multiplicative interaction be-tween the two major mechanisms of permethrin resistance, kdr and cyto-chrome P450‐monooxygenase detox-ification, in mosquitoes. J Evol Biol. 22(2): 416–423.

Pocquet N, Milesi P, Makoundou P, Unal S, Zumbo B, Atyame C, Dar-riet F, Dehecq JS, Thiria J, Bheecar-ry A, Iya¬loo DP, Weill M, Chandre F, Labbé P (2013) Multiple Insecti-cide Resistances in the Disease Vec-tor Culex quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean. PLoS One. 8(10): e77855.

Qiang XU, Liu H, Zhang L, Liu N (2005) Resistance in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, and possi-ble mechanisms for resistance. Pest Manag Sci. 61(11): 1096–1102.

MGjullin C, Peters RF (1952) Abstract of recent studies of mosquito re-sistance to insecticides in Califor-nia. Twenty Annual Conference of the California Mosquito Control As-sociation, 1952 March, Cleve¬land, Ohio, USA, pp. 44–45.

Smith GF (1949) Kern MAD has cir-cumstantial evidence on DDT re-sistance. Mosquito Buzz. 3(8): 2.

Isaak LW (1961) Review of insecticide resistance in Kern Mosquito Abate-ment District. Twenty-nine Annual Con¬ference of the Califor¬nia Mos-quito Control Association, 1961, Cleve¬land, Ohio, USA, pp. 105–106.

Nazni WA, Lee HL, Azahari AH (2005) Adult and larval insecticide suscep-tibility status of Culex quin-quefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Trop Bi-omed. 22: 63–68.

Ouali EL, Lalami A, El-Akhal F, Amri

NEL, Maniar S, Faraj C (2014) State resistance of the mosquito Cu¬lex pipiens towards temephos cen¬tral Mo¬rocco. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 107(3): 194–198.

Daaboub J, Tabbabi A, Lamari A, Feri-ani M, Boubaker C, Cheikh HB (2017) Levels of Insecticide Re-sistance to Temephos, and Associ¬ated Mechanisms in Culex pipiens Mosqui-toes from Cen¬tral Tunisia. J Mosq Res. 7(10): 79–83.

Liu H, Cupp EW, Micher KM, Guo A, Liu N (2004) Insecticide resistance and cross-resistance in Alabama and Flor¬ida strains of Culex quinquefas-ciatus. J Med Entomol. 41(3): 408–413.

Kumar PM, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Subramaniam J, Amaresan D (2012) Mosquito larvicidal and pu¬picidal efficacy of Solanum xantho¬carpum (Fam-ily: Solanaceae) leaf extract and bac-terial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis, against Cu¬lex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 110 (6): 2541–2550.

Shayeghi M, Vatandoost H, Gorouhi A, Sanei-Dehkordi AR, Salim-Abadi Y, Karami M (2014) Biodiversity of aquat¬ic insects of Zayandeh Roud River and its branches, Isfahan Province, Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8(2): 197–203.

Salim-Abadi Y, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Abaei MR, Sanei-Dehkordi AR, Paksa A (2010) Evaluation of bio¬logical con-trol agents for mosqui¬toes control in artificial breeding places. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3(4): 276–277.

Gorouhi MA, Salim-Abadi Y, Paksa, A, Rashid, G, Sanei-Dehkordi A (2017) Larvicidial Effects of essen-tial oil and methanol extract of Achillea wil¬helmsii C. Koch (Aster¬aceae) against Anoph¬eles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), a ma¬laria vec-tor. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 24(1): 58–67.

Sanei-Dehkordi AR, Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Akbarzadeh K, Salim-Abadi Y, Paksa A, Gorouhi MA, Moham¬madi-Azni S (2016) Chemi-cal Composition and Mosquito Lar-vi¬cidal Properties of Essential Oil from Leaves of an Iranian Indige-nous Plant Zhumeria majdae. J Es-sent Oil Bear Pl. 19(6): 1454–1461.

Sedaghat M, Dehkordi AS, Abai M, Khanavi M, Mohtarami F, Abadi YS, Rafi F, Vatandoost H (2011) Larvici- dal Activity of Essen¬tial Oils of Apiace¬ae Plants against Malaria Vec-tor, Anoph¬eles stephen¬si. Iran J Ar-thropod Borne Dis. 5: 51–59.

Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Abtahi SM, Madani A, Paksa A, Salim-Abadi Y, Gorouhi MA, Sanei-Dehkordi AR (2017) Phyto-chemical Profile and Mosquito Lar-vicidal Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge Against Malaria and Lym-phatic Fil¬ariasis Vectors. J Essent Oil Bear Pl. 20(2): 328–336.

Vatandoost H, Dehkordi AR, Sadeghi SMT, Davari B, Karimian F, Abai MR (2012) Identification of chemi-cal constituents and larvicidal activ-ity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaf-farian es¬sential oil against two mos-quito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Cu-licidae). Exp Par¬asitol. 132(4): 470–474.

Published
2017-12-30
How to Cite
1.
Salim-Abadi Y, Asadpour M, Sharifi I, Sanei-Dehkordi A, Gorouhi MA, Paksa A, Tayyebi Z, Aghaei-Afshar A. Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae) to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 11(4):453-462.
Section
Original Article