Original Article

Situational Analysis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Most Important Endemic Area of the Disease in Iran


Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector borne diseases in the world, transmitted by sand flies. Despite efforts to prevent the spread of the disease, cases continue worldwide. In Iran, the disease usually occurs in children under 10 years.  In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate is 95–100%. The main objective of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of visceral leishmaniasis as well as its correlation with climatic factors for determining high-risk areas in an endemic focus in northwestern Iran.
In this cross-sectional study, data on VL cases were collected from local health centers in Ardabil Prov­ince, Iran during 2001–2015 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS23 and ArcMap Spatial Analyst. MaxEnt model was used to determine ecologically suitable nichesfor the disease.
Two hotspots were found in Meshkinshahr and Germi counties with 59% and 23% of total cases, respec­tively. There was an increase in the incidence rate of VL in Ardabil County from 2.9 in 2009 to 9.2/100,000 population in 2015. There was no spa­tial autocorrelation between county and total number of cases (P> 0.05). Higher NDVI, lower altitude and southern as­pects had positive effects on the presence probability of VL.
The number of cases of this disease have been rising since 2013 and doubled in 2015. According to the derived distribution maps, the disease is spreading to new locations such as Ardabil and Namin counties.

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IssueVol 11 No 4 (2017) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
Visceral leishmaniasis Seroepidemiology GIS Iran

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How to Cite
Moradi-Asl E, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Rassi Y, Vatandoost H, Mohebali M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Habibzadeh S, Hazrati S, Rafizadeh S. Situational Analysis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Most Important Endemic Area of the Disease in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2017;11(4):482-496.