Original Article

Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Focus of the Disease, Southeastern Iran


Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Iran, existing in a variety of forms ranging from cutaneous to visceral forms. Jask County has been recognized as an endemic focus of the disease in the southeastern region of Iran. This study analyzed the situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during 2006–2014.

Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on CL data got from health sector. ArcGIS 10.3 was exploited for the spatial analysis of CL. Potential high-risk areas of the disease regarding its' current geographical distribution were considered.

Results: Overall, 874 CL cases had been registered in the district health center, implying an average incidence of 162.5per 100000. More than 90% of the cases emerged from rural areas. The disease is geographically distributed in the southeastern regions of Jask County. Over one-third of the total study area can be classified as high-risk areas, involving 61 villages with a total population of about 18000. Remarkably, altitude and total precipitation were real­ized to play key roles in CL transmission within the study area.

Conclusion: Although the national protocol for the control of ZCL recommends the substantial destruction of rodent colonies serving as reservoirs of the disease in infected foci, critical improvement of the knowledge of the residents in these areas is crucial for community-based management of the disease in Jask County.

World Health Organization (2010) Control of of the leishmaniasis. Report of a Meeting of the WHO Expert Com-mittee on the Control of Leishmani-ases. WHO Technical Report Series. WHO, Geneva.

World Health Organization (2004) The world health report 2004. Changing his-tory. WHO, Geneva.

Alvar J, Velez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Bo-er M (2012) Leishmaniasis world-wide and global estimates of its in-cidence. PLoS One. 7 (5): e35671.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2012) Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodi¬dae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmission. J Ar-thropod Borne Dis. 6: 1–17.

Shirzadi MR, Esfahani SB, Mohebali M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Gharachorlo F, Razavia MR, Postigo JA (2015) Epidemiological status of leishmani-asis in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1983-2012. East Mediterr Health J. 21(10): 736–742.

Maroli M, Feliciangeli MD, Bichaud L, Charrel RN, Gradoni L (2013) Phle-botom¬ine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern. Med Vet Entomol. 27: 123–147.

Karimi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ghezelbash Z (2014) Spatial and temporal distribu-tions of phlebotomine sand flies (Dip¬tera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishman¬iasis, in Iran. Acta Trop. 132: 131–139.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Haghdoost AA, Akhavan AA, Rassi Y, Karimi A, Charrahy Z (2015) Modeling the distri¬bution of cutaneous leish-man¬iasis vectors (Psychodidae: Phlebotom¬inae) in Iran: A po¬tential transmission in disease prone areas. J Med Entomol. 52(4): 557–565.

Gholamrezaei M, Mohebali M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sedaghat MM, Shirzadi MR (2016) Ecological Niche Modeling of main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cuta¬neous leishmaniasis in Iran. Acta Trop. 160: 44–52.

Azizi K, Moemenbellah-Fard MD, Fakoo-rziba MR, Fekri S (2011) Gerbillus nanus (Rodentia: Muridae): a new res¬ervoir host of Leishmania major. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 105(6): 431–437.

Nadim A, Javdian E, Mohebali M, Momeni AZ (2009) Leishmania parasite and Leishmaniasis. 3rd ed. Markaz Nashr Daneshgahi Press, Tehran.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Zahraei-Ramezani AR, Akhavan AA, Jalali-Zand AR (2005) Rodent control operations against zo¬onotic cutaneous leish-maniasis in rural Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 25 (4): 309–312.

Ali-Akbarpour M, Mohammadbeigi A, Tabat¬abaee SH, Hatam G (2012) Spa-tial analysis of eco-environmental risk factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Iran. J Cutan Aesthet Surg, 5: 30–35.

Seid A, Gadisa E, Tsegaw T, Abera A, Mulugeta A, Herrero M, Argaw D, Jorge A, Kebede A, Aseffa A (2014) Risk map for cutaneous leishmania-sis in Ethiopia based on environmental fac¬tors as revealed by geographical information sys¬tems and statistics. Geospatial Health. 8(2): 377–387.

Mollalo A, Alimohammadi A, Shah¬risvand M, Shirzadi MR, Malek MR (2014) Spatial and statistical analyses of the rela¬tions between vegetation cover and inci¬dence of cutaneous leish-maniasis in an en¬demic province, northeast of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 4(3): 176–180.

Mollalo A, Alimohammadi A, Shir¬zadi MR, Malek MR (2015) Geographic in¬for-mation system-based analysis of the spa¬tial and spatio-temporal distribu-tion of zoon¬otic cutaneous leishman-iasis in Golestan Province, north-east of Iran. Zoonoses Public Health. 62(1): 18–28.

Johnston K, Ver Hoef JM, Krivo¬ruchko K, Lucas N (2001) Using ArcGIS ge-osta¬tistical analyst (Vol. 380). ESRI Press, Redlands: California, p. 316.

Azizi K, Davari B, Kalantari M, Fekri S (2011) Gerbillidae rodents fauna (Mu¬ridae: Gerbillinae) and detection of res¬ervoir hosts(s) of zoonotic cu-taneous leish¬maniasis using a Nested-PCR tech¬nique in Jask City in Hor-mozgan Prov¬ince in 2008. Kordestan Univ Med J. 16: 66–76.

Azizi K, Kalantari M, Fekri S (2011) The Nested-PCR based detection of cutane¬ous leishmaniasis vectors in Jask County, Hormozgan, Iran. Iran J Epidemiol. 7(3): 27–33.

Fekri S, Vatandoost H, Daryanavard A, Shahi M, Raeisi A, Omar AS, Sharif M, Safari R, Azizi A, Ali AA, Nasser A, Hasaballah I, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2014) Malaria situation in an en-demic area, Southeastern Iran. J Ar-thropod-Borne Dis. 8: (1): 82–90.

Yeryan M, Basseri HR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Raeisi A, Edalat H, Safari R (2016) Bio-ecology of malaria vectors in an endem¬ic area, Southeast of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 9(1): 32–38.

Patz JA, Graczyk TK, Geller N, Vit¬tor AY (2000) Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases. Int J Parasit. 30: 1395–1405.

Kassiri H, Javadian E, Abdigoudarzi M (2011) Natural Leishmania Infection in Meriones hurrianae and Tatera indica (Ro¬dentia: Cricetidae: Ger-billinae) in Sistan-Baluchistan Province, South-Eastern of Iran. Adv Stud Biol. 3(6): 247–256.

Shirzadi MR, Mollalo A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2015) Dynamic relations be¬tween incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leish¬maniasis and climatic factors in Goles¬tan Province, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 9(2): 148–160.

Estrada-Pena A (2001) Climate warning and changes in habitat suitability for Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodi-dae) in Central America. J Parasitol. 87 (5): 978–987.

Estrada-Pena A (1998) Geostatistics and remote sensing as predictive tools of tick distribution: a cokriging system to estimate Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) habitat suitability in the Unit¬ed States and Canada from advanced very high resolution radiome¬ter sat-ellite imagery. J Med Entomol. 35(6): 989–995.

Azil AH, Bruce D, Williams CR (2014) Determining the spatial autocorrela-tion of dengue vector populations: influences of mosquito sampling method, covariables, and vector con-trol. J Vec Ecol. 39(1): 153–163.

IssueVol 12 No 1 (2018) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
Cutaneous leishmaniasis Epidemiology Spatial analysis Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Fekri S, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Salari Y, Davoodian P, Safari R, Dadvand H, Mohebbi M, Issazadeh H, kamali Z. Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Focus of the Disease, Southeastern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2018;12(1):76-84.