The Occurrence of Red-Back Spider Latrodectus hasselti (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Bandar Abbas, Southern Port of Iran
AbstractBackground: Due to importance and fatal affect of Red-back spiders, Latrodectus hasselti, a faunistic survey for presence of this spider in Bandar Abbas has been conducted. This animal is considerably the most medically importance spiders all over the world.Methods: Live adult spider specimens were collected from Bandar Abbas town using hand catch conventional method and transferred to the laboratory throughout the summer of 2008. They were identified based on morphological characteristics and taxonomic keys and confirmed by some external experts.Results: Results showed the occurrence of the red-back spider, L. hasselti from Bandar Abbas, southern port of Iran. Two female specimens were found. The spider had specific morphological characters including black color with an obvious orange to red longitudinal strip on its upper parts of abdomen.Conclusion: Although the specimens were collected from south of the country, however since the region is an important harbor and port and goods come form different parts of world we assume the possibility of arrival from its origin and native breeding sites of the world. Therefore further investigation is needed to clarify the presence of this species in different parts of Iran.
Bonnet MS (1999) The toxicology of the Latrodectus hasselti spider the Austra- lian red back spider. British Homo J.88(1): 2–6.
Cariaso BL (1967) A biology of the black widow spider, Latrodectus hasselti Thorell (Araneida: Theridiidae). Philip- pine Agr Sci. 51: 171–180.
Cavalieri MD, Urso D, Lassa A (1987) Char- acterization and some properties of the venom gland extract of a Theriid spider (Steatoda paykulliana) frequently mis- taken for black widow spider (Latrodec- tus tridecimguttatus). Toxicon. 25: 965–974.
Clark RF, Wethern-Kestner S, Gerkin Vance MV (1992) Clinical presentation and treat- ment of black widow spider enveno- mation: a review of 163 cases. Ann J Emerg Med. 21: 782–787.
Ellis RM, Sprivulis PC, Jelinek GA, Banham ND, Wood SV, Wilkes GJ, Siegmund A, Roberts BL (2005) A double-blind, randomized trial of intravenous versus in- tramuscular antivenom for Red-back spi- der envenoming. Emerg Med Aust. 17(2):152–156.
Forster LM, Kingsford S (1983) A prelimi- nary study of development in two La- trodectus species (Araneae: Theridiidae). New Zealand Entomol. 7: 431–438.
Forster LM (1984) The Australian redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti): its intro- duction and potential for establishment and distribution in New Zealand, In: Laird M (Ed): Commerce and the spread of pests and disease vectors. New York, pp. 273–289.
Forster LM (1995) The behavioral ecology of Latrodectus hasselti (Thorell), the Australian redback spider (Araneae: Theridiidae): a review. Record Western Australian Museum. 52: 13–24.
Geoffrey KI, Gray MR (2003) Latrodectism: a prospective cohort study of bites by formally identified redback spiders. Med J Australia. 179(21): 88–91.
Graudins A, Padula M, Broady K, Nicholson GM (2001) Red-back spider (Latrodec- tus hasselti) antivenom prevents the tox- icity of widow spider venoms. Ann J Emerg Med. 37(2): 154–160.
Iran Climatology Center, http//:www.havairan. com.Isbister GK, Gray MR (2002) A prospective study of 750 definite spider bites, with expert spider identification. Quarterly J Med. 95: 723–731.
Korszniak NV, Story DF (1994) Effects of the venom of a Theriid spider, Steatoda capensis Hann, on automatic transmis- sion in the rat isolated atria and caudal artery. Toxicon. 32: 85–96.
Levi HW (1959) The spider genus Latrodec- tus (Araneae, Theridiidae). Trans Am Microscopical Soc. 78: 7–43.
Levi HW (1983) On the value of genitalic struc- tures and coloration in separating spe- cies of widow spiders (Latrodectus sp.) (Arachnida: Araneae: Theridiidae). Verh. Naturwiss Ver Hamburg. 26: 195–200.
Nicholson GM, Graudins A (2002) Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pa- cific: atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins. Clin Exp J Pharma Physiol. 29: 785–794.
Nihei N, Yoshida M, Kaneta K, Shimamura R, Kobayashi M (2004) Analysis on the Dispersal patern of newly Introduced Latrodectus hasselti (Araneae: Ther- idiidae) in Japan by Spider Diagram. J Med Entomol.41 (3): 296–276.
Nimorakiotakis B, Winkel KD (2004) Spider bite-the red back spider and its relatives. Reprinted from Australian Family Phy- sician 33(3): 153–157.
Rafinejad J (1997) An investigation on the systematic, biology and ecology of widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) in Khorasan province, Iran. [PhD dissertation]. School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Roth VD (1982) Handbook for spider Identification. Dept Zool Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611Stallybrass FC (1969) Spider bites. Lancet.15, 1: 572.
Vetter RS, Visscher PK (1998) Bites and stings of medically important venomous arthropods. International J Dermatol. 37:481–496.
Walsh JF, Molyneaux DH, Birley MH (1993) Deforestation: Effects on vector-borne disease. Parasitol. 106: S55–S75.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.