Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers
AbstractBackground: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative effi- cacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition.Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis.Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2.Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi.
Abai MR, Mehravaran A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Javadian E, Mashayekhi M, Mosleminia A, Piyazak N, Edallat H, Mohtarami F, Jabbarie H, Rafi F (2008) Comparative performance of imagicides on Anopheles stephensi, main malaria vector in a malarious area, southern, Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 45:307–312.
Abdelkrim A, Mehlhorn H (2006) Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 99:466– 472.
Abdurrahman A, Osman S, Salih K, Ismet O (2010) Insecticidal activity of the es- sential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects. J Insect Sci.10: 21.
Barnard DR, Xue RD (2004) Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigri- palpus, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) J Med Entomol.41(4): 726–730.
Davari B, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Shaeghi M, Oshaghi MA, Basseri HR, Enayati AA, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Hanfi- Bojd AA, Akbarzadeh K (2006) Com- parative efficacy of different imagicides against different strains of Anopheles stephensi in the malarious areas of Iran,2004–2005. Pak J Biol Sci. 9: 885–892.
Davari B, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Ladonni H, Enayati AA, Shaeghi M, Basseri HR, Rassi Y, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2007) Selection of Anopheles ste- phensi with DDT and dieldrin and cross- resistance spectrum to pyrethroids and fipronil. Pest Bioch Physio. 89: 97–103.
Doosti S, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hosseini M (2006) Taxo- nomic differentiation of Anopheles sa- charovi and An.maculipennis s.l. (Dip- tera: Culicidae) larvae by seta 2 (ante- palmate hair). Acta Med Iran. 44: 41–43.
Doosti S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hosseini M, Sedaghat MM (2007) Ap- plying Morphometric variation of seta 2 (antepalmate hair) among the larvae of the members of the Maculipennis subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 1: 28–37.
Enayati AA, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Townson H, Hemingway J (2003) Mo- lecular evidence for a Kdr-like pyre- throid resistance mechanism in the ma- laria vector mosquito Anopheles ste- phensi. Med Vet Entomol. 17: 138–144.
Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis, 3rd ed.Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, Eng- land.
Finney DJ (1978) Statistical method in biological assay, 3rd ed. Charles Grif- fin and Co, London.
Fradin MS, Day GF (2002) Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mos- quito bites. The New England J Med.47: 13–18.
Günter C, Müller AJ, Jerry B, Vassiliy DK, Edita ER, Robert WW, Schlein Y (2009) Efficacy of the botanical repellents gera- niol, linalool, and Citronella against mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 34(1): 2–8.
Hadjiakhoondi A, Aghel N, Zamanizadeh N, Vatandoost H (2000a) Chemical and Biological study of Mentha spicata L. essential oil from Iran. Daru. 8: 19–21.
Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Abousaber M, Khanavi M, Abdi L (2000b) Che- mical composition of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. and its effects on Anopheles stephensi larvae in Iran. J Med Plants. 7: 33–100.
Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Jamshidi A, Amiri EB (2003) Chemical constituents and efficacy of Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss.) bar essential oil against malaria vector, Anopheles stepensi. Daru. 11:125–128.
Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Khanavi M, Abaee MR (2005) Biochemical in- vestigation of different extracts and lar- vicidal activity of Tagetes minuta L on Anopheles stephensi larvae. Iran J Pharm Sci. 1: 81–84.
Hadjiakhoondi A, Sadeghipour-Roodsari HR, Vatandoost H, Khanavi M, Vosoughi M, Kazemi, M Abai, MR (2006) Fatty acid composition and toxicity of Melia azedarach L. fruits against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Pharm Sci.2: 97–102.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Jafari R (2006) Susceptibility status of An. dthali and An. fluviatilis to commonly used larvicides in an endemic focus of malaria, southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 43:34–38.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatan- doost H, Charrahy Z (2011) Spatio- temporal distribution of malaria vec- tors (Diptera: Culicidae) across differ- ent climatic zones of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 6: 498–504.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Haghdoost AA, Shahi M, Se- aghat MM, Abedi F, Yeryan M, Pakari A (2011) Entomological and epidemi- ological attributes for malaria transmis- sion and implementation of vector con- trol in southern Iran. Acta Trop. Acta Trop. [Epub ahead of print]
Klocke JA, Darlington MV, Balandrin MF (1987) 8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil of Hemizonia fitchii (As- teraceae)". J Chem Ecol. 13(12): 23–27.
Klun JA, Khrimian A, Debboun M (2006) Repellent and deterrent effects of SS220, Picaridin, and DEET suppress human- blood feeding by Aedes aegypti, Ano- pheles stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi. J Med Entomol. 43: 34–39.
Logan JG, Stanczyk NM, Hassanali A, Ke- mei J, Santana AEG, Ribeiro KAL, Pickett JA, Mordue (Luntz) JA (2010) Arm-in-cage testing of natural human- derived mosquito repellents. Malar J. 9:239.
Maia FM, Moore SJ (2010) Plant-based in- sect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malar J. 10 (Suppl 1): S11.
Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM (1992) A review of malaria in Iran, 1957–1990. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 8: 381–385.
Mittal PK, Sreehari U, Razdan RK, Dash AP, Ansari MA (2011) Efficacy of Ad- vanced Odomos® repellent cream (N, N-diethyl-benzamide) against mosquito vectors. Indian J Med Res. 133: 426–430.
Naddaf SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, As- mar M (2003) Molecular characteriza- tion of the Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9: 257–265.
Omrani SM, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Shokri F, Guerin PM, Yaghoobi-Er- shadi, MR, Rassi Y, Tirgari S (2010) Fabrication of an olfactometer for mos- quito behavioural studies. J Vector Borne Dis. 47: 17–25.
Oshaghi MA ,Ghalandari R, Vatandoost H, Shayeghi M, Kmali-nejad M, Tourabi- Khaledi H Abolhassani M, Hashem- zadeh M (2003a) Repellent effect of extracts and essential oil of Citrus limon
(Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labi- atae) against main malaria vector, Ano- pheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. Iranian J Public Health. 32: 47–52.
Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM, Vatandoost H (2003b) Molecular characterization of the Anopheles maculipennis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9: 59–66.
Oshaghi MA, Yaaghoobi F, Abai MR (2006a) Pattern of mitochondrial DNA variation between and within Anophe- les stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) bio- logical forms suggests extensive gene flow. Acta Trop. 99: 226–233.
Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi F, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Akbarzadeh K (2006b) Ano- pheles stephensi biological forms, geo- graphical distribution, and malaria trans- mission in malarious regions in Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 9: 294–298.
Oshaghi MA, Chavshin AR, Vatandoost H (2006c) Analysis of mosquito bloodmeals using RFLP markers. Exp Parasitol. 114:259–264.
Pourmand MR, Yazdi MH, Bayat M (2008) In vitro antimicrobial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Myrtus communis L. L. and Eucalyptus officinalis against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influen- zae. Iran J Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.23: 14–25.
Rafinejad J, Vatandoost H, Nikpoor F, Abai MR, Shaeghi M, Duchen, S, Rafi F (2006) Effect of washing on the bioef- ficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi by three bioassay methods. J Vector Borne Dis. 45: 143–150.
Rechinger KH (1996) Myrtacea in Flora Iranica (No. 34.1). Kademische Druck- U. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
Sadat Ebrahimi SE, Hadjiakhoondi A, Reza- zadeh Sh, Fereidunian N, Vatandoost
H, Abai MR (2005) The components of Tagetes minuta L. and its biological ac- tivities against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi in Iran. J Med Plants. 4: 43–47.
Salari Lak SH, Vatandoost H, Entezarmahd MR, Ashraf H, Abai MR, Nazari M (2002) Monitoring of insecticide resis- tance in Anopheles sacharovi (Favre,1903) in borderline of Iran, Armenia, Naxcivan and Turkey,. Iran J Public Health. 31: 96–99.
Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Nicolescu G, Smith L, Koliopoulos G, Zounos AK, Athanassios K. Zounos, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003a) Morphological and molecular charac- terization of Anopheles (Anopheles) sacharovi Favre, a primary vector of malaria in the Middle East. Systematic Entomol. 28: 241–256.
Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003b) The Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran: molecular characterization and recognition of a new species. Bull Entomol Res. 93: 527–535.
Sedaghat MM, Harbach RE (2005) An anno-tated checklist of the Anopheles mos- quitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Vector Ecol. 30: 272–276.
Sedaghat MM, Dehkordi AS, Khanavi M, Abai MR, Mohtarami F, Vatandoost H (2011) Chemical composition and lar- vicidal activity of essential oil of Cu- pressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Lis- ton (Diptera: Culicidae). Pharmacognosy Res. 3: 135–139.
Shahi M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Iranshahi M, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd MY (2010) Larvicidal efficacy of latex and extract of Calotropis procera (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae) against Culex quinq- uefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Borne Dis.47: 185– 88.
USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (1998) DEET: Reregistration eligibility decision. Washington, DC: USEPA, Of- fice of Pesticide Programs, Special Re- view and Registration Division.
Vatandoost H, Shahi M, Abai MR, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Zamani G. (2004a) Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan province and their susceptibility to different larvicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 35: 22–25.
Vatandoost H, Borhani N (2004b) Suscep- tibility level and irritability of synthetic pyrethroids against main malaria vectors in the endemic areas of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 42: 247–255.
Vatandoost H, Moinvaziri VM (2004c) Lar- vicidal activity of neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Me- diterr Health J. 10: 573–578.
Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abai MR, Aflatoonian MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi I (2005a) Monitoring of insecti- cides resistance in main malaria vectors in a malarious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman province, southeastern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 42: 100–108.
Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2005b) Current resistant status of Anopheles stephensi Liston to different larvicides in Hormozgan province, southeastern Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 8: 1568–1570.
Vatandoost H, Dehakia M, Djavadia E, Abai MR, Duchson S (2006a) Comparative study on the efficacy of lambdacyhalo- thrin and bifenthrin on torn nets against the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi as assessed by tunnel test method. J Vector Borne Dis. 43: 133–135.
Vatandoost H, Gholizadeh MR, Abai MR, Djavadian E (2006b) Laboratory efficacy of protection rate of torn nets treated with pyrethroids, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin against Anopheles ste-phensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Biol Sci.6: 331–336.
Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaaghoobi F, Baghaii M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Zamani G, Townson H (2006c) Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan province, southern Iran. Acta Trop. 97: 196–205.
Vatandoost H, Khazani A, Rafinejad J, Khoobdel M, Kebriai-Zadeh A, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akhavan AA, Abtahi SM, Rafi F (2008a) Compara- tive efficacy of Neem and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culici- dae). Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 1: 1–6.
Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2008b) Laboratory evaluation of 3 repellents against Anopheles stephensi in the Is- lamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 14: 260–267.
Vatandoost H, Ramin E, Rassi Y, Abai MR (2009a) Stability and wash resistance of local made mosquito bednets and de- tergents treated with pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 3: 19–28.
Vatandoost H, Ramin E, Rassi Y, Abai MR (2009b) Stability and wash resistance of local made mosquito bednets and de- tergents treated with pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 3: 19–28.
Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Abbasi M, Shaeghi M, Abtahi M, Rafie F (2009c) Design- ing of a laboratory model for evaluation of the residual effects of deltamethrin (K-othrine WP 5%) on different surfaces against malaria vector, Anopheles ste- phensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Borne Dis. 46: 261–267.
Vatandoost H, Zahirnia AH (2010) Respon- siveness of Anopheles maculipennis to different imagicides during resurgent ma- laria. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 3:360-363.
Vatandoost H, Rashidian A, Jafari,M, Raeisi A, Hanafi-Bojd A, Yousofzai AW, Daryanavard A, Mojahedi A, Pakari A (2011) Demonstration of malaria situa- tion analysis, stratification and planning in Minab District, southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4(1): 67–71.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ja- hanifard E (2006) Repellency effect of myrtle essential oil and DEET against Phlebotomus papatasi under laboratory conditions. Iran J Public Health. 35: 7–13.
Zahirnia AH, Vatandoost H, Nateghpour M, Javadian E (1998) Insecticide resistance/susceptibility monitoring in Anopheles pulcherrimus (Dipter: Culicidae) in Ghas- reghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan province. Hakim. 1: 97–106.
Zahirnia AH, Taherkhani H, Vatandoost H (2001) Observation of malaria sporo- zoite in Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghasreghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan province. Hakim. 4:149–153.
Zolfaghari ME, Salamian P, Riazi A, Khaksa G (1997) Clinical trial of Efficacy of myrtle in the treatment of herpes simplex. Iran J Med Sci. 22(3 and 4):137–140.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.