Zingiber officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus, Potent Lethal/Repellent Agents against Rhipicephalus bursa, Probable Carrier for Zoonosis

  • Samin Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
  • Amir Dehghani-Samani Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran AND Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
  • Yaser Pirali Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
  • Azam Dehghani-Samani Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Acaricidal activity, Essential oil, Eucalyptus, Ginger, Repellent activity


Background: Rhipicephalus bursa is a hard tick with importance in transmission of tick-borne diseases and zoono­sis. Natural products are excellent alternative to pesticides. In this study for the first time, lethal and repellent activity of Zingiber officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus against Rh. bursa were studied.Methods: In July till September of 2017, essential oils were extracted in Shahrekord University, Iran from fresh plant materials and engorged mature ticks were collected from infested sheep herd located in Saman, Iran. Ticks were challenged by different concentrations of essential oils including 300, 500 and 800µl/ml and 1 (pure) singly and/or in combination. Percentages of killed and repellent ticks as efficacy of acaricidal and repellent activity of es­sential oils against Rh. bursa were calculated and analyzed statistically.Results: Efficacy of eucalyptus essential oils was more in whole concentrations and its highest performance was observed in concentration 1 (pure). Efficacies of ginger and combined essential oils were different for each concen­tration but their highest efficacies were observed in concentration 1 (pure), too.Conclusion: This study showed considerable values of acaricidal and repellent activity against Rh. bursa for both essential oils singly and in combination, so they can be considered as potent lethal/repellent agents for control of ticks, but more studies need for this purpose, study on lethal/repellent activity of these essential oils and/or other plants against other important arthropods can be considered as subjects for next experiments.


1. Bratton RL, Corey GR (2005) Tick-borne disease. Am Fam Physician. 71(12): 2323–2330.
2. Noori NV, Rahbari S, Bokaei S (2012) The seasonal activity of Rhipicephalus bursa in Cattle in Amol (Northern Iran). World Appl Sci J. 18: 590–593.
3. Walker AR (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: a guide to identification of species. Bioscience Reports, Edinburgh.
4. Razmi GR, Glinsharifodini M, Sarvi S (2007) Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 45(4): 307–310.
5. Yakhchali M, Hosseine A (2006) Prevalence and ectoparasites fauna of sheep and goats flocks in Urmia suburb, Iran. Vet arhiv. 76(5): 431–442.
6. Rahbari S, Nabian S, Shayan P (2007) Primary report on distribution of tick fau-na in Iran. Parasitol Res. 101(2): 175–177.
7. Telmadarraiy Z, Ghiasi SM, Moradi M, Vatandoost H, Eshraghian MR, Faghi-hi F, Zarei Z, Haeri A, Chinikar S (2010) A survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004–2005. Scand J Infect Dis. 42(2): 137–141.
8. Masala G, Chisu V, Foxi C, Socolovschi C, Raoult D, Parola P (2012) First detection of Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks in Sardinia, Italy. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 3(5–6): 396–397.
9. Dahmani M, Davoust B, Rousseau F, Ra-oult D, Fenollar F, Mediannikov O (2017) Natural Anaplasmataceae infec-tion in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from sheep in the French Basque Country. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 8(1): 18–24.
10. Fernandez-Soto P, Encinas-Grandes A, Perez-Sanchez R (2003) Rickettsia aes-chli¬mannii in Spain: molecular evidence in Hyalomma marginatum and five other tick species that feed on humans. Emerg Infect Diseases. 9(7): 889–890.
11. Ioannou I, Sandalakis V, Kassinis N, Chochlakis D, Papadopoulos B, Loukaides F, Tselentis Y, Psaroulaki A (2011) Tick-borne bacteria in mouflons and their ectoparasites in Cyprus. J Wildl Dis. 47 (2): 300–306.
12. Isman MB, Machial CM (2006) Pesticides based on plant essential oils: from traditional practice to commercialization. Advances Phytomed. 3: 29–44.
13. Enayati AA, Asgarian F, Amouei A, Sharif M, Mortazavi H, Boujhmehrani H, Hem¬ingway J (2010) Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari, Ixodidae). Pest Biochem Physiol. 97 (3): 243–248.
14. Enayati AA, Asgarian F, Sharif M, Boujhmehrani H, Amouei A, Vahedi N, Boudaghi B, Piazak N, Hemingway J (2009) Propetamphos resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari, Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol. 162(1–2): 135–141.
15. Maia MF, Moore SJ (2011) Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malaria J. 10(1): S11–26.
16. Shukla Y, Singh M (2007) Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief re-view. Food Chem Toxicol. 45(5): 683–690.
17. Singh G, Maurya S, Catalan C, De Lam-pasona MP (2005) Studies on essential oils, Part 42: chemical, antifungal, antioxidant and sprout suppressant studies on ginger essential oil and its oleoresin. ‎Flavour Fragr J. 20(1): 1–6.
18. Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitz-ler P (2008) Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomed. 15(1–2): 71–78.
19. Brooker MIH, Kleinig DA (1994) Field Guide to Eucalyptus. (Third ed). Bloomings Books, Melborne.
20. Dehghani-Samani A, Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi S, Dehghani-Samani A, Pirali-Kheirabadi K (2015) Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata). J Herb Med Pharmacol. 4(3): 81–84.
21. Vazquez G, Fontenla E, Santos J, Freire MS, Gonzalez-Alvarez J, Antorrena G (2008) Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of chestnut (Castanea sativa) shell and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) bark extracts. Ind Crops Prod. 28 (3): 279–285.
22. Gilles M, Zhao J, An M, Agboola S (2010) Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils of three Australian Eucalyptus species. Food Chemist. 119(2): 731–737.
23. Guo R, Canter PH, Ernst E (2006) Herb-al medicines for the treatment of rhinosinusitis: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(4): 496–506.
24. Cermelli C, Fabio A, Fabio G, Quaglio P (2008) Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses. Curr Microbiol. 56(1): 89–92.
25. Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb H, Heidari Z, Bokaeian M, Moudi B (2010) Antidia-betic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study. Folia Morphol. 69(2): 112–118.
26. Blazevic I, Mastelic J (2009) Glucosinolate degradation products and other bound and free volatiles in the leaves and roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Food Chemist. 113: 96–102.
27. Geier M, Boeckh J (1999) A new Y-tube olfactometer for mosquitoes to measure the attractiveness of host odours. Entomol Exp Appl. 92(1): 9–19.
28. Koul O, Singh G, Singh R, Singh J (2007) Mortality and reproductive performance of Tribolium castaneum exposed to anethole vapours at high temperature. Biopestic Int. 3: 126–137.
29. Zengin H, Baysal AH (2014) Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil terpenes against pathogenic and spoilageforming bacteria and cell structure-activity relationships evaluated by SEM microscopy. Molecules. 19(11): 17773–17798.
30. Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi S, Pirali Y, Dehghani-Samani A, Dehghani-Samani A (2018) The insecticidal and repellent activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oils against Culex theileri Theobald, 1903 (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann Parasitol. 64(4): 351–360.
31. Pirali-Kheirabadi K, Razzaghi-Abyaneh M, Halajian A (2009) Acaricidal effect of Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils against adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro. Vet Parasitol. 162(3–4): 346–349.
32. Papachristos DP, Karamanoli KI, Stamo-poulos DC, Menkissoglu‐Spiroudi U (2004) The relationship between the chemical composition of three essential oils and their insecticidal activity against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say). Pest Manag Sci. 60(5): 514–520.
33. Mandal S (2011) Repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica seed oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in India. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 1(1): S109–112.
34. Kumar P, Mishra S, Malik A, Satya S (2012) Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica). Acta Trop. 122(2): 212–218.
35. Yang YC, Choi HY, Choi WS, Clark JM, Ahn YJ (2004) Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculi-dae). J Agric Food Chem. 52(9): 2507–2511.
36. Maciel MV, Morais SM, Bevilaqua CM, Silva RA, Barros RS, Sousa RN, Sousa LC, Brito ES, Souza-Neto MA (2010) Chemical composition of Eucalyptus spp. essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Lutzomyia longipalpis. Vet Parasitol. 167(1): 1–7.
37. Liu X, Chen Q, Wang Z, Xie L, Xu Z (2008) Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis/ E. urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects. Frontiers Forestry China. 3(2): 232–236.
38. Prajapati V, Tripathi AK, Aggarwal KK, Khanuja SP (2005) Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour Technol. 96 (16): 1749–1757.
39. Pavela R (2005) Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodop¬tera littoralis. Fitoterapia. 76(7–8): 691–696.
40. Sivasothy Y, Chong WK, Hamid A, Eldeen IM, Sulaiman SF, Awang K (2011) Essential oils of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and their antibacterial ac¬tivities. Food Chemist. 124(2): 514–517.
41. Çalmaşur Ö, Aslan İ, Şahin F (2006) In-secticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn. Ind Crops Prod. 23(2): 140–146.
42. Martinez-Velazquez M, Castillo-Herrera GA, Rosario-Cruz R, Flores-Fernandez JM, Lopez-Ramirez J, Hernandez-Gutierrez R, del Carmen Lugo-Cervantes E (2011) Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitol Res. 108(2): 481–487.
43. Martinez-Velazquez M, Rosario-Cruz R, Castillo-Herrera G, Flores-Fernandez JM, Alvarez AH, Lugo-Cervantes E. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbena-ceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodi-dae). J Med Entomol. 48(4): 822–827.
44. Chiasson H, Bélanger A, Bostanian N, Vincent C, Poliquin A (2001) Acaricidal properties of Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) essential oils obtained by three methods of extraction. J Econ Entomol. 94(1): 167–171.
How to Cite
Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi S, Dehghani-Samani A, Pirali Y, Dehghani-Samani A. Zingiber officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus, Potent Lethal/Repellent Agents against Rhipicephalus bursa, Probable Carrier for Zoonosis. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 13(2):214-223.
Original Article