A Review of Impact of Bam Earthquake on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Status: Epidemic of Old Foci, Emergence of New Foci and Changes in Features of the Disease
Background: Global findings indicate that incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has significantly increased during the past decade, as documented in many countries. This review was aimed to evaluate the trend of CL cases in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics during a decade after the earthquake (2003–2012) compared to the corresponding period before the earthquake in Bam (1993–2003).
Methods: Direct smear preparations along with different intrinsic methods were used for detection and identification of the causative agents.
Results: Overall, 20999 cases of CL have occurred during the last 20 years (1993–2012), 6731 cases before and 14268 cases after the earthquake (P< 0.001).
Conclusions: Following a major earthquake, several risk factors could activate epidemics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in old foci and induce emerging foci in new areas.
Abolghasemi H, Radfar MH, Khatami M, Saghafi Nia M, Amid A, Briggs S (2006) International medical response to a natural disaster: lessons learned from the Bam earthquake experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 21: 141–147.
Aflatoonian MR, Sharifi I, Fekri AR (2009) Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment after the earthquake. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 4: 365–373.
Aflatoonian MR, Sharifi I, Abbasi R, Ranjbar L (2010) To evaluate the cost of pre- vention on incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to earthquake in Bam. Iran J Epidemiol. 6: 32–38.
Aflatoonian MR, Sharifi I (2010) prevalence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam district during 20 years (1988–2007). J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 17 (4): 297–306.
Aflatoonian MR, Sharifi I (2011) The epidemiology of cutaneous leishmania- sis in the city and suburb of Bam in 2010: active case-finding, treatment and health education of the school children. Iran J Epidemiol. 7: 52–57.
Aflatoonian MR, Sharifi I, Poursmaelian S, Hakimi-Parizi M, Ziaali N (2013) The emergence of anthroponotic cu- taneous leishmaniasis following the earthquake in southern villages of Bam district, southeastern Iran, 2010. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 7: 8–14.
Aghasi M, Sharifi I (2003) Survey of the fauna and monthly activity of the sand fly as the vector of the cutane- ous leishmaniasis in the city of Bam. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 10: 85–91.
Aghae Afshar A, Rassi Y, Sharifi I, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Vatandoost H (2011) Suscepti- bility status of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodi- dae) to DDT and Deltamethrin in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis af- ter earthquake strike in Bam, Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 5: 32–41.
Aghaei Afshar A, Vatandoost H, Sharifi I, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rafizadeh S (2013) First determination of impact and outcome indicators following in- door residual spraying (IRS) with deltamethrin in a new focus of an- throponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis.3: 5–9.
Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hasibi F, Jafari R, Abdoli H, Arandian MH, Soleimani H, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Mohebali M, Hajjaran H (2007) Emer- gence of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in a new focus of southern Iran. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 1: 1–8.
Alvar J, Velez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, Boer M (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One. 7: e 35671.
Ashford RW (2000) The leishmaniasis as emerging and reemerging zoonoses. Int J Parasit. 30: 1269–1281.
Bayramgürler D, Bilen N, Namli S, Altinaş L, Apaydin R (2002) The effects of 17 August Marmara earthquake on patient admittances to our dermatol- ogy department . J Eur Aca Dermatol Venereol. 16: 249–245.
Croft SL, Sunder S, Fairlamb AH (2006) Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 19: 111–126.
Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2001) Anthropogenic environmental changes and the emergence of infec- tious diseases in wildlife. Acta Trop.78: 103–116.
Desjeux P (2001) The increase in risk factors for the leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 95:239–243.
Dye C, Wolpert DM (1988) Earthquakes, influenza and cycles of Indian kala- azar. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg.82: 843–850.
Esfandiarpour I, Dabiri SH (2007) Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis recidi- vans with a combination of allopuri- nol and meglumine antimoniate: a clinical and histologic study. Int J Dermatol. 46: 848–852.
Fakoorziba MR, Baseri A, Eghbal F, Rezaee S, Azizi K, Moemenbellah-Fard (2010) Post-earthquake outbreak of cutane- ous leishmaniasis in a rural region of southern Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasi- tol. 104: 521–528.
Fazaeli A, Fouladi B, Sharifi I (2009) Emer- gence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a border area at south-east of Iran: an epidemiological survey. J Vector Borne Dis. 46: 36–42.
Kolaczinski J, Brooker S, Reyburn H, Rowland M (2004) Epidemiology of an- throponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Afghan refugee camps in north- west Pakistan. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 98: 373–378.
Kouadio Ik, Aljunid S, Kamigaki T, Ham- mad K, Oshitani H (2012) Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures. Exp Rev Anti Infect Ther. 10: 95–104.
Macpherson CNL (2005) Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zo- onoses. Int J Parasitol. 35: 1319–1331.
Nadim A, Aflatoonian MR (1995) Anthro- ponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam, southeast Iran. Iran J Publ Health.24: 15–24.
Nadim A, Motabar M, Houshmand B, Key- ghobadi K, Aflatoonian MR (1995) Evaluation of pyrethroid impregnated bednets for control of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam (Is- lamic Republic of Iran). World Health Organization /Leish/95.37 Geneva.
Noazin S, Shirzadi MR, Kermanizadeh A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Sharifi I (2013) Effect of large-scale installation of deltamethrin-impregnated screens and curtains in Bam, a major focus of an- throponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 107(7): 444–450.
Ocampo CB, Ferro MC, Cadena H, Gongora R, Pérez M, Valderrama-Ardila CH (2012) Environmental factors associ- ated with American cutaneous leish- maniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia. Trop Med Int Health. 17:1309–1317.
Patz JA, Graczyk TK, Geller N, Vittor AY (2000) Effects of environmental chang- es on emerging parasitic diseases. Int J Parasitol. 30: 1395–1405.
Poursmaelian S, Mirzaei M, Sharifi I, Zarean M (2010) The prevalence of cutane- ous leishmaniasis in the city and sub- urb of Mohammadabad, Jiroft district and identification of parasite species by nested-PCR, 2008. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 18: 218–227.
Rassi Y, Abai MR, Javadian E, Rafizadeh S, Imamian H, Mohebali M, Fateh M, Hajjaran H, Ismaili K (2008) Molec- ular data on vectors and reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leish- maniasis in central Iran. Bull Soc Path Exot. 101: 425–428.
Ready PD (2011) Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe (a review article). Availa- ble at: http:// www. eurosurveillance.
Reyburn H, Rowland M, Mohsen M, Khan B, Davies C (2003) The prolonged epidemic of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kabul, Afghanistan: bringing down the neighborhood. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 97:170–176.
Sharifi I, Ardehali S, Motazadian H, Afla- toonian MR (1997) Identification and characterization of Leishmania isolates in school children in Bam, southeast- ern Iran. Iran J Med Sci. 22: 82–88.
Sharifi I, Fekri AR, Aflatoonian MR, Khamesipour A, Nadim A, Mousavi MR, Momeni AZ, Dowlati Y, Godal T, Zicker F, Smith PG, Modabber F (1998a) Randomized vaccine trial of single dose of killed Leishmania ma- jor plus BCG against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam, Iran. Lancet. 351: 1540–1544.
Sharifi I, Fekri AR, Aflatoonian MR, Khamesipour A, Mahboudi F, Dow- lati Y, Nadim A, Modabber F (2010) Leishmaniasis recidivans among school children in Bam, South-east Iran, 1994–2006. Int J Dermatol. 49: 557–561. Sharifi F, Sharifi I, Zarean M, Hakimi Parizi
M, Aflatoonian MR, Fasihi Harandi M, Zahmatkesh R, Mashayekhi M, Kermanizadeh AR (2011a) Spatial distribution and molecular identifica- tion of Leishmania species from en- demic foci of south-eastern Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 7: 45–52.
Sharifi I, Nakhaei N, Aflatoonian MR, Ha- kimi Parizi M, Fekri AR, Safizadeh H, Shirzadi MR, Gooya MM, Khamesi- pour A, Nadim A (2011b) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam: a comparative evaluation of pre- and post- earth- quake years (1999–2008). J Publ Health.40: 49–56.
Sharifi I, Poursmaelian S, Aflatoonian MR, Ardakani RF, Mirzaei M, Fekri AR, Khamesipour A, Parizi MH, Harandi MF (2011c) Emergence of a new fo- cus of anthroponotic cutaneous leish- maniasis due to Leishmania tropica in rural communities of Bam district after the earthquake, Iran. Trop Med Int Health. 16: 510–513.
Sharifi I, Aflatoonian MR, Aflatoonian B, Kermanizadeh A (2014) The se- verity of cutaneous leishmaniasis be- fore and after the earthquake in Bam, southeastern Iran. J Parasit Dis. (DOI
1007/s12639-014-0435-5). Shirzadi MR, Gouya MM (2012) National Guidelines for Cutaneous Leishmani- asis Surveillance in Iran. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Zoonoses Control Department, Tehran Iran.
Shultz JM, Russell J, Espinel Z (2005) Epi- demiology of tropical cyclones: the dynamics of disaster, disease, and de- velopment. Epidemiol Rev. 27: 21–35.
Smith AW (2005) Tsunami in south Asia: what is the risk of post- disaster in- fectious disease outbreaks. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 34: 625–631.
World Health Organization (2009) Leish- maniasis: background information. A brief history of the disease. Available at: www.who.int /leishmaniasis/en.
World Health Organization (2010) Control of the leishmaniasis. Report of a Meeting of the WHO Export Com- mittee on the Control of Leishmaniasis, WHO Technical Report Series 949, Geneva.
Zhang S, Lu Z, Liu H, Xindong Xiao, Zongguo Zhao, Genshu Bao, Jian Han, Tao Jing, Gen Chen (2013) In- cidence of Japanese encephalitis vis- ceral leishmaniasis and malaria be- fore and after the Wechuan earth- quake, in China. Acta Trop. 1: 85–89.
|Issue||Vol 10 No 3 (2016)|
|Cutaneous leishmaniasis Disaster Earthquake Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|