Evaluation of Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Coccinia grandis against Three Mosquito Species

  • Shahid Iqbal Mohammed School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, India
  • Kishor Sukhlal Vishwakarma School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, India
  • Vijay Laxminarayan Maheshwari Mail School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, India
Coccinia grandis, Essential oil, Mosquito, Larvicidal, GC-MS


Background: To study the chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Coccinia grandis against three mosquito species.Methods: Essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using clevenger apparatus and was analyzed for chemical constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Larvicidal activity was recorded after 12 and 24h of post-exposure against three mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefascia­tus. Dead larvae were identified when they failed to move after probing with a needle in the siphon or cervical re­gion. The LC50 and LC90 values for three mosquito larvae were calculated by Probit analysis.Results: The GC-MS analysis revealed that essential oil contains 23 different constituents. Out of these 23 constitu­ents, major constituents identified were n-tetracosane (39.18%), n-eicosane (30.04%), tetratriacotane (2.97%), 7-oc­tadecanal (2.81%), and tricosane (2.31%). Essential oil from leaves of Coccinia grandis exhibited significant larvi­cidal activity against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values 39.41ppm and 123.24ppm, respectively. This was fol­lowed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 48.20ppm, 131.84ppm and 52.80ppm, 135.48ppm, respectively after 24h of exposure.Conclusion: The results could be useful in developing a cost effective, ecofriendly, region specific and practical strategy for the control of mosquito vectors.


Adedayo OO, Emmanuel TI, Muyiwa KO, Adedapo OA, Judith BO, Olubunmi AO, Taiwo SA (2012) Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban popula- tions of Anopheles gambiae s.s. ParasitVectors. 5: 116.

Ajay SS (2009) Hypoglycemic activity of Coc- cinia indica (Cucurbitaceae) leaves. Int J Pharm Tech Res. 1(3): 892–893.

Akpuaka A, Ekwenchi MM, Dashak DA, Dil- dar A (2013) Biological Activities of Characterized Isolates of n-Hexane Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) Leaves. New York Sci J. 6:119–124.

Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006) “Larvicidal ef- fects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera:Culicidae)”. Parasitol Res.99: 466–472.

Anupam G, Nandita C, Goutam C (2012) Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides Indian J Med Res. 135(5): 581–598.

Brogdon WG, Allister JC (1998) Insecticide resistance and vector control. Emerg Infect Dis. 4(4): 605–613.

Cheng SS, Chang HT, Chang ST, Tsai KH, Chen WJ (2003) “Bioactivity of select- ed plant essential oils against the yel- low fever mosquito Aedes aegypti lar- vae”. Bioresour Technol. 89: 99–102.

Dharmagadda VSS, Naik SN, Mittal PK, Vasudevan P (2005) Larvicidal activity of Tagetes patula essential oil against three mosquito species. Bioresour Tech- nol. 96: 1235–1240.

Dua VK, Pandey AC, Raghavendra K, Gupta A, Sharma T, Dash AP (2009) “Larvi- cidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes”. Malar J. 8: 124.

Govindarajan M (2010) Chemical composi- tion and larvicidal activity of leaf es- sential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3(11): 874–877.

Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswari M, Yogal-akshmi M (2010) Chemical com- position and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species. Parasi- tol Res. 110: 2023–2032.

Intirach J, Choochote W, Junkum A, Chaithong U, Champakaew D, Tuetun B, Jitpakdi A, and Pitasawat B (2012) Chemical constituents and combined larvicidal effects of selected essential oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae) Psyche. 2012: 1–11.

Kalaivani K, Senthil-Nathan S, Murugesan AG (2012) Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant es- sential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 110(3): 1261–1268.

Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesa- lu V (2011) Mosquito larvicidal activ- ity of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate iso- lated from the leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. Acta Trop. 120: 115–118.

Kristan M, Fleischman H, Della TA, Stich A, Curtis CF (2003) Pyrethroid resistance/ susceptibility and differential urban/

rural distribution of Anopheles ara- biensis and A. gambiae s.s malaria vectors in Nigeria and Ghana. Med Vet Entomol. 17: 326–332.

Manas M, Sunita Y, Pawan K, Raka K (2014) In vitro propagation and biosynthesis of steroidal sapogenins from various morphogenetic stages of Moringa oleif- era Lam, and their antioxidant poten- tial. Acta Physiol Plant. 36: 1749–1762.

Mittal PK, Wijeyaratne P, Pandey S (2004) Status of insecticide resistance of ma- laria, kala-azar and Japanese encepha- litis vectors in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN), Environmen- tal Health Project, Washigton, DC, USA.

Munasinghe MAAK, Abeysena C, Yaddehige IS, Vidanapathirana T, Piyumal KPB (2011) Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a new drug for Diabetes Mellitus. Exp Diabetes Res. 2011: 978762.

Liu P, Xin-Chao L, Hui-Wen D, Zhi-Long L, Shu-Shan D, Zhi-Wei D (2012) Chem- ical composition and insecticidal activ- ity of the essential oil of Illicium pach- yphyllum fruits against two grain stor- age Insects. Molecules. 17(12): 14870–14881.

Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A, Nagarajan A (2011) Effect of leaf essential oil of Coccinia indica on egg hatchability and differ- ent larval instars of malarial mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4(12): 948–951.

Ramaiah KD, Das PK, Michael E, Guyatt H (2000) The economic burden of lym- phatic filariasis in India. Parasitol To- day. 16(6): 251–253.

Rutledge CR, Clarke F, Curtis A, Sackett S (2003) Larval mosquito control, Tech- nical bulletin of the Florida mosquito control association. 4: 16–19.

Senthilkumar A, Jayaraman M, Venkatesalu V (2013) Chemical constituents and lar- vicidal Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefas- ciatus Parasitol Res. 112: 1337–1342.

Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V (2010) Chem- ical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus am- boinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anoph- eles stephensi: a malarial vector mos- quito. Parasitol Res. 107: 1275–1278.

Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V (2012) Lar- vicidal potential of Acorus calamus L.essential oil against filarial vector mos- quito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Med.107: 1275–1278.

Senthilkumar A, Verma P, Gurusubamanian G (2009) Larvicidal and adulticidal ac- tivities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Parasitol Res.104:237–244.

Service MW (1996) Medical Entomology for Students. Chapman and Hall, London. Siddiqui BS, Rasheed M, Ilyas F, Gulzar T,Tariq RM, Naqvi SNH (2004) Analy- sis of Insecticidal Azadirachta indica. Z Naturforsch C. 59: 104–112.

Singh G, Kapoor IPS, Singh P, Heluani GSD, Lampasona MPD (2008) Chemistry, an- tioxidant and antimicrobial investiga- tions on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber Officinale. Food Chem Toxi- col. 46(10): 3295–3302.

Theodore G, Andreadis, Michael C, Thomas, John J (2005) Identification guide to the mosquito of Connecticut. Shepard Illus- trations by Gale Ridge The Connect- icut Agricultural Experiment Station.

Tielong X, Daibin Z, Linhua T, Xuelian C, Fengyang F, Guiyun Y, Bin Z (2014) Anopheles sinensis mosquito insecticideods and mosquito age in resistance meas- urements. Parasit Vectors. 7: 54.

World Health Organization (1981) Instruc- tion for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to in- secticideas. WHO-VBC 81. 807: 1–6.

World Health Organization (2009) Global pro- gramme to eliminate lymphatic filaria- sis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 84: 437–444.

World Health Organization (2014) WorldMalaria Report. WHO, Geneva.

World Health Organization (2006) Guide- lines for the Treatment of Malaria. WHO-WC. 770: 12–13.

Zhu BCR, Henderson G, Chen F, Fei H, Laine RA (2001) Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean ter- mite. J Chem Ecol. 27(8): 1617–1625.

How to Cite
Mohammed SI, Vishwakarma KS, Maheshwari VL. Evaluation of Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Coccinia grandis against Three Mosquito Species. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 11(2):226-235.
Original Article