Vol 8 No 1 (2014)

Published: 2014-06-15


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 381 | views: 362 | pages: 1-9
    Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt.Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group.Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color) urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle.Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 405 | views: 373 | pages: 10-20
    Background: Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with anti- biotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.Methods: Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods.Results: Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana  (64.04%)  and  Bl.  germanica  (35.96%).  However  the  predominant  bacteria  on  cockroaches  were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli,  Enterobacter aerogenes, and  Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three.Conclusion: Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 483 | views: 1500 | pages: 21-34
    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of in-secticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objec- tive of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.Methods: These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Results: Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05).Conclusion: Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 309 | views: 344 | pages: 35-42
    Background: The aim was to survey the specific factors, which cause to decrease blood feeding of mosquitoes important to succeed vector control.Methods: Larval collection was carried out from fixed and variable breeding places of Yazd County, central Iran in 2009. Autogeny-Anautogeny, Stenogamy-Eurygamy, and blood preference of Culex pipiens were studied using standard mosquito cages blood meal source for Cx. pipiens females considered as the chickens and human and fed females were kept in insectary condition (16:8 L: D, 27±3 °C and 70±10% RH). The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5 soft ware.Results: Totally, 96 females' mosquitoes were tested for Stenogamy versus Eurygamy and 122 for blood preference assay. In the small cages (20× 20× 20cm) and large cage (60× 40× 60cm), the ability of mating and insemination rates were 60.0 and 67.0%, respectively. In spite of Cx. pipiens fed from sucrose 5%, none of them laying eggs in 60× 40× 60 cages during the study. This finding indicated the Anautogeny behavior of this species. This species was found of low tendency to human blood and almost 4 fold fed on chicken.Conclusion: The occurrence of Steno-Eurygamy, Anautogeny, and Ornithophilic behaviors of Cx. Pipiens was noted. More studies need to  be  carried out about the bionomics of this species to  gain more data about the ecophysiological and behavioral characteristics in other parts of Iran.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 324 | views: 385 | pages: 43-52
    Background: Malaria still is considered as a public health problem in Iran. The aim of the National Malaria Control Department is to reach the elimination by 2024. By decreasing the number of malaria cases in preelimination phase the cost effectiveness of malaria interventions decreases considerably. This study estimated the cost effectiveness of various strategies to combat malaria in preelimination and elimination phases in Iran.Methods: running costs of the interventions at each level of intervention was estimated by using evidence and expert opinions. The effect of each intervention was estimated using the documentary evidence available and expert opin- ions. Using a point estimate and distribution of each variable the sensitivity was evaluated with the Monte Carlo method.Results: The most cost-effective interventions were insecticide treated net (ITN), larviciding, surveillance for diag- nosis and treatment of patients less than 24 hours, and  indoor residual spraying (IRS) respectively, No related evi - dence found for the effectiveness of the border facilities.Conclusion: This study showed that interventions in the elimination phase of malaria have low cost effectiveness in Iran like many other countries. However ITN is the most cost effective intervention among the available interven- tions.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 337 | views: 379 | pages: 53-59
    Background: The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa is known as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in urban environments, but its role is not well documented regarding the carriage of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacte- ria in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach in Ahvaz, south west of Iran.Methods: Totally 39 cockroaches were collected from kitchen area of houses and identified. All specimens were cultured to isolate the bacterial agents on blood agar and MacConky agar media. The microorganisms were identified using necessary differential and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for isolated or- ganisms by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion according to NCLI guideline, using 18 antibiotics.Results: From the 39 collected S. langipalpa, 179 bacterial agents were isolated, 92 of alimentary ducts and 87 of external body surfaces. Isolated bacteria from cockroaches were identified as Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The pattern resistance rates were determined for gram negative bacilli and gram positive cocci regarding 18 antibiotics.Conclusion: The brown-banded cockroach can be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of contacting human environment to drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the potential of removing this in- sect should be improved. This is the first original report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach of Iran.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 312 | views: 404 | pages: 60-68
    Background: Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as nega- tive controls.Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the con- centration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect,even with 10% concentration of essential oils.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 419 | views: 573 | pages: 69-81
    Background: Microbes particularly bacteria presenting in the gut of haematophagous insects may have an important role in the epidemiology of human infectious disease.Methods: The microbial flora of gut and surrounding environmental of a laboratory strain of Phlebotomus papatasi, the main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the old world, was investigated. Biochemical reac- tions and 16s rDNA sequencing of the isolated bacteria against 24 sugars and amino acids were used for bacteria species identification. Common mycological media used for fungi identification as well.Results: Most isolates belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae, a large, heterogeneous group of gram-negative rods whose natural habitat is the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Enterobacteriaceae groups included Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Leminorella, Pantoea, Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella, Serratia, Shigella, Tatumella, and Yersinia and non Enterobacteriaceae groups included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Pseu- domonas. The most prevalent isolates were Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. These saprophytic and swarming mo- tile bacteria were isolated from all immature, pupae, and mature fed or unfed male or female sand flies as well as from larval and adult food sources. Five fungi species were also isolated from sand flies, their food sources and colo- nization materials where Candida sp. was common in all mentioned sources.Conclusion: Midgut microbiota are increasingly seen as an important factor for modulating vector competence in insect vectors so their possible effects of the mirobiota on the biology of P. papatasi and their roles in the sandfly- Leishmania interaction are discussed.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 310 | views: 604 | pages: 82-90
    Background: Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.Methods: The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006–2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analy- sis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.Results: A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respec- tively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%).Conclusion: Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activ- ities for health education and awareness.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 383 | views: 364 | pages: 91-101
    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.Results: LC50  values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49,241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mos- quito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50  values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd  and 3rd  instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alter- native to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 402 | views: 321 | pages: 102-107
    Background: The Varroa destructor mite is considered as a major pest of honey bees Apis mellifera. The rapid spread of Varroa mites among bee colonies may be due to several factors, including drifting of infested bees, movement of bee swarms, and robbing of weakened colonies. Disease spread and predisposing the infested bees to other diseases lead to high economic losses in beekeeping industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and evaluate some managing factors in Golestan Province in Iran in 2008.Methods: According to the records of Agricultural Research Center, 80 infested beekeeping centers identified and a questionnaire consists of managing factors for each center has been designed. All data were recorded and analyzed by SPSS software to calculate χ2 test.Results: Among 80 apiculture centers, 72 centers (92%) were infested to Varroa and hive density of 90.6% of the centers was 31–60 hives in one center (P= 0.324).  All of the apiculture centers had more than 6 km distance to nearest beekeeping center (P= 0.687). Amongst bee keepers 15(93.8%) had low literacy level (P= 0.479) and 26(89.7%)had 5–10 years experience in beekeeping (P= 0.953).Conclusion: We can conclude that because of the high prevalence of the disease, the usual methods of prevention are not effective. This high prevalence emphasizes that we are very far from a solution for Varroa infestation and extra researches on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is immediately required.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 357 | views: 536 | pages: 108-116
    Background: A survey on tick species composition was carried out in Golestan Province Iran during year 2010–2011.The aim was to determine tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics. Methods: A total of 124 sheep, 92 goats, 84 cattle, 74 camels and 12 horses in several villages were inspected for tick infestation. The collected ticks preserved in 70% alcohol and then were identified.Results: The overall 1059 ticks (453 female, 606 male) were collected. The ticks occur on sheep, goats, cattle, cam- els and horses as 72.1%, 77.3%, 75.8%, 69.3%, and 50% respectively. The frequency of ticks in spring was more than other seasons and the least was observed in winter. In the spring and summer, infestation rate in domestic rumi- nants  were  calculated as  100%.  Six  genus  and  fourteen  hard  and  soft  tick  species  were  identified including Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, H. erinacei, H. inermis, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. excavatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Boophilus annulatus and Argas persicus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species in the study area. The larg- est  number of ticks  was collected from animal ears and  tails.  Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus occurred in mountainous, forest and plateau areas of Golestan Province but Ixodes occurred only in mountainous and forest areas, whereas Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were present in coastal areas of Golestan Province.Conclusion: The result of this study is a survey on tick species from domestic animals in Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 266 | views: 250 | pages: 117-118
    Myiasis is due to the opportunistic dipterous larvae feeding on viable or necrotic tissues of the host occurring throughout the world. We report a case of oral myiasis in an immune-compromised patient suffering from nonHodgkin lymphoma. We  would like  to  emphasize that such ectoparasitic infections may happen in  immuno- compromised patients and oral hygiene should be evaluated in all of these patients.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 1206 | views: 349 | pages: 119-123
    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.