Vol 2 No 1 (2008)

Published: 2008-06-15

Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 300 | views: 409 | pages: 1-6
    Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory.Methods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae.Results: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05). However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05).Conclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 276 | views: 311 | pages: 7-15
    Background: Leishmania, needs to detoxify the macrophage derived potent peroxides (H2O2). Tryparedoxin path­way contains tryparedoxin peroxidase (TSA or TRYP). The aim of the study was to detect the full-length gene se­quence and its encoded protein of the LmTRYP6 gene (EU251502), and comparison the gene sequence with LmTRYP6 (LmjF15.1140), another previously reported member of this gene family.Methods: L.major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were cultured, DNA and RNA were extracted and the inter­ested gene was amplified using PCR and RT-PCR methods.  PCR/ RT-PCR fragments were purified and cloned first in pTZ57R/T and then in pET15b expression vector. The expressed protein was verified using western blot method. Char­acterization of the expressed protein was performed bioinformatically.Results: Molecular evaluation revealed that the cloned LmTRYP6 gene (EU251502) encoded a predicted 184 amino acid long protein with a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.1101. Alignment showed a number of changes in amino acid composition including the replacement of highly conserved Trp177 by Cys in LmTRYP6 (ABX26130).Conclusion: So far no study has been done on this group, i.e.  TRYP6 gene, from tryparedoxin peroxidase family. The low homology with LmTRYP6 (LmjF15.1140) and vast array of differences observed in the gene under study (LmTRYP6; EU251502) could open new windows in the field of anti-Leishmania combat. Based on its important role in the viability and successful establishment of the parasite in the host organism it looks to be very good candi­date for vaccine development and any other sort of novel drug development.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 503 | views: 562 | pages: 16-20
    Background:The distribution and preferences of ticks of animals in central of Iran were studied four times a year.Methods: One thousand seven tick specimens were collected from different localities including Isfahan, Chaharmahalbak­htiary, EastAzarbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Kordestan, Kermanshah, Lorestan and Fars.Results: Most of sampled animals in this area were infested. We also encountered with a wild goat (Capra hircus aegagrus) in Kolah Qazi national park in this part that was infested intensively by Boophilus kohlsi. Fifteen ixodid tick species were identified over the study period from cattle, sheep and domestic and wild goats namely B. kohlsi (3.6%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.5%), Rh.bursa (21.9%), Rh.turanicus (2.9%), Dermacentor niveus (12.9%), D.raskemensis (4.1%), D.marginatus (7.3%), Haemaphysalis punctata (3.5%), H. Parva (0.6%), H. Choldokovskyi (2%), Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (4.8%), H.anatolicum anatolicum (5.2%), H. asiaticum asiaticum (7.3%), H. marginatum marginatum (13%), and H. detritum detritum (5.9%). The only soft tick found was Ornithodoros canestrinii which occurred in all localities of Isfahan Province but with significant differences in abundance. Clear pattern of seasonality was evident for this species and it was generally present from November to March, while ixodid ticks were present throughout the year. The largest numbers of adult ixodid ticks were generally present from April to August.Conclusion: The results showed that Rh.bursa, D.niveus and H.marginatum marginatum are dominant tick species
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 699 | views: 539 | pages: 21-27
    Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1%) commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 347 | views: 479 | pages: 28-36
    Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 933 | views: 1071 | pages: 37-43
    Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 503 | views: 5152 | pages: 44-48
    The prevalence of Sarcoptes in rural areas has been investigated by many investigators. Sarcoptes infestation in areas with poor education and hygienic is higher than urban areas. In this study, one severe case of Sarcoptes scabiei in­festation is described from a four months old child. Confirmation of scabies was done by clinical examination of child and by the identification of the mite by microscopically examining scrapings from the scabies lesions. The prevalence of scabies is high in children in rural regions, suggesting that it is a serious public health problem. This phenomenon may be due to the fact that certain environmental conditions such as overcrowding, poor personal hy­giene, poverty, and ignorance, which are conducive to the spread of scabies, tend to be quite common in rural re­gions. Control programs should be put in place and implemented in an integrated manner, by reducing overcrowding, and by improving health education, personal hygiene, treatment and surveillance among high-risk populations.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 448 | views: 333 | pages: 49-52
    Androctonus crassicauda is the second most frequent causes of scorpion sting in south-west Iran. Its venom can cause sever pain, autonomic, central nervous system (CNS), muscle function disturbances, and death. Appropriate medi­cal and nursing cares can lead to complete recovery with no sequel .The majority of scorpion stings are oligosympto­matic, occurring mainly on the hands and feet (about 90%). Here one rare case of a scorpion sting on the scro­tum is reported from Kashan, central Iran.                                                 
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 422 | views: 545 | pages: 53-56
    A gingival myiasis in a four years old mental retarded boy with anorexia and weight loss is presented from southern part of Iran. Entomological studies on larvae showed the larvae as Wohlfartia magnifica which is a rare causative agent of gingival myiasis.