Vol 11 No 3 (2017)

Published: 2017-10-08

Original Article

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    Background: Equine piroplasmosis is caused by two haemoprotozoan parasites: Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Negative economic impact on international trade has been associated to endemic sites. This is the reason why carrier detection requires reliable diagnostic methods. Various diagnostic modalities can be used alone or in combination including PCR. However, genetic variation of commonly used genes is still of debate. The aim of this research was to sequence the b-tubulin gene of a B. caballi strain from Spain and to compare it with known b-tubulin sequences.Methods: DNA was isolated from a cryopreserved strain from Spain and acute and chronic carrier horses. Firstly, degenerated primer pairs were designed based on GenBank sequences of different Babesia and Theileria species for sequencing. The primers were redesigned to amplify both parasites, simultaneously. Finally, a species-specific pri­mer pair for B. caballi was designed and a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-PCR (PCR-RFLP) assay performed to know the difference of known B. caballi strains.Results: We provided new insights of the b-tubulin gene and a good molecular coverage of this gene, contributing with a number of useful primers to amplify T. equi and B. caballi. Moreover, PCR-RFLP assays based on the exon II of this gene confirmed the causative B. caballi strain in Spanish horses.Conclusion: We reported useful primer pairs for diagnostic and a new sequence of the b-tubulin gene of B. caballi, which will facilitate the development of future assays and the detection of infected horses, preventing thus the spread of this disease worldwide.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 440 | views: 366 | pages: 354-362
    Background: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries.Methods: Adults Anopheles spp. were collected from four provinces in Afghanistan (Badakhshan, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar) by pyrethrum spray catch, hand collection methods through WHO/EMRO coordination and from Chaba­har County in Iran by pyrethrum spray catch method. Identification was performed using reliable identification key.Results: Totally, 800 female Anopheles mosquitos, 400 from each country were identified at species level. Anophe­les composition in Afghanistan was An. superpictus, An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus. Most prevalent species in Ba­dakhshan and Kunduz were An. superpictus, whereas An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus were respectively found in Nangarhar and Heart. Anopheles species in Chabahar County of Iran were An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. culicifa­cies and An. sergentii. The most prevalent species was An. stephensi.Conclusion: Current study provides a basis for future research such as detection of Plasmodium infection in col­lected samples which is on process by the authors, also for effective implementation of evidence-based malaria vec­tor intervention strategies.
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    Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post- mortem interval (PMI) estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran dis­trict.Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identi­fied using morphological characteristics.Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae), one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae), and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) and a beetle Der­mestes maculatus (Dermestidae) was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially.Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio­temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 429 | views: 533 | pages: 371-382
    Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area.Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015–2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies.Results: Distribution maps were produced using ArcGIS 10.3. Totally, 368 specimens from two families of Buthidae (97.1%) and Scorpionidae (2.99%) were collected and identified as Mesobuthus eupeus (80.16%), Androctonus crassicauda (10.60%), M. caucasicus (4.89%), Hottentotta saulcyi (1.35%) and Scorpio maurus (2.99%).Conclusion: The presence of medically important species, including the deadly black one in northwestern Iran re­quires health educational and control programs for reduction of these public health problems.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 340 | views: 361 | pages: 383-392
    Background: Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), are endemic in Iran.Methods: Cross-sectional study was de­signed to identify Leishmania species in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients who referred to Mashhad Health Centers from 2013 to 2014 using ITS-PCR-RFLP technique. First, physical examinations were performed in all suspected patients and CL cases were confirmed with microscopical examinations. A questionnaire was prepared and complet­ed for each confirmed patient and DNA from each lesion smear was extracted, separately. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer was amplified with appropriate primers and PCR products were digested by enzyme Taq1 restrict enzyme.Results: From all patients, 51 cases (54.3%) were men and 43 of them (45.7%) were women. The most frequent age group was 20–29 years old (27.2%). Hands, face and feet were the most common sites for appearance of skin lesions. All of the 94 cases (100%) tested found to be positive by ITS-PCR-RFLP. Overall, Leishmania species were identified in all of the 94 lesion smears which 33 (35%) of them were L. major and 61 (65%) of the remained isolates were iden­tified L. tropica.Conclusion: Characterization of Leishmania isolates collected from different parts of Khorasan-Razavi Province showed that L. tropica is predominant agents of CL, especially in large and medium sized cities such as Mashhadand Shandiz. Moreover, this study revealed that ITS-PCR-RFLP based on our designed primers is a suitable method for species characterization.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 286 | views: 226 | pages: 393-402
    Background: Al Rabta is a rural area in the North-West of Libya that represents an important focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ultra Low Volume (ULV) applications in control­ling sand flies and its impact on leishmaniasis transmission in this area.Methods: Two neighboring villages were selected: Al Rabta West (RW) as cypermethrin treated village and Al Rabta East (RE) as check one. The ULV was evaluated through 3 spraying cycles during Apr, Jun and Sep 2013. In the two villages, a number of outdoor sites were selected for sampling of sand flies (twice a month) using the CDC light traps. The cases of CL reported in the two villages during the study period were obtained from Al Rabta health center.Results: The two villages were similar where 9 species of sand flies (6 of Phlebotomu and 3 of Sergentomyia) were collected of which S. minuta and P. papatasi were the abundant species. As compared to the pre- ULV spraying, during the post- spraying periods: i) the reduction in abundance of the different species ranged from 20.85 to 77.52% with 46.69% as an overall reduction for all species altogether and, ii) in significantly (P˃ 0.05) higher mean ratio of males: females for all species altogether (1:2.41). Moreover, ULV spraying resulted in the absence of CL (Leishmania major) cases (Passive Case Detection)Conclusion: The efficiency of ULV spraying in reducing sand fly population, CL cases and consequently limits the disease transmission. 
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 357 | views: 432 | pages: 414-426
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epi­demiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015.Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals. Giemsa staining was used for preparing the ex­panded smear and followed by PCR for identifying the causative agent in human, vectors, and reservoirs. In this study, relative frequency of CL was also calculated.Results: Fourteen species of Phlebotomine sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi (61.74%) was the pre­dominant species through the period of activity. Overall, 62 Meriones libycus, 8 Nesokia indica, 4 Mus musculus, 16 Allactaga elater and 2 Hemiechinus auritis were caught. PCR technique showed 6 out of 150 P. papatasi (2%), two out of 62 M. libycus (3.23%) and all of suspected human's skin tissue samples (100%) were infected with Leishmania major. The relative frequency of CL was 0.30%. Conclusion: This is the first detection of L. major within P. papatasi, M. libycus and human in Kahak District in Qom Province of Iran. Zoonotic cycle of CL exists in this area, L. major is the causative agent, P. papatasi is the main vector and M. libycus is the main reservoir of the disease. 
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 379 | views: 317 | pages: 403-413
    Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml) in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

Short Communication

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    Background: Scorpions are among the world’s venomous arthropods, they sting humans every year, suffering pain­ful symptoms or losing their lives because of the venom. Odontobuthus doriae Thorell 1876 (Arachnida: Scorpi­onida: Buthidae) is a scorpion of medical importance and therefore its geographical distribution in Isfahan Province has been studied.Methods: This descriptive cross–sectional study was designed between Mar and Jun in 2012 and 2013 in Province of Isfahan, central Iran. Overall, 164 O. doriae scorpions were collected from their natural habitat by identifying the dug burrows. This arthropod’s burrows were identified based on the presence of tumuli, particularly between May and Jun at the sloping foothills of pristine embankments. The sampling data was categorized and compared.Results: The relative frequency of collected O. doriae for the counties was Mobarakeh (13.5%), Shahinshahre (11.5%), Borkhar (9%), Shahreza (7.5%), Kashan (7.5%), Naeen (6%), Natanz (5.5%), Isfahan (4.8%), Najafabad (4.8%), Aran and Bidgol (4.8%), Dehaghan (4.8%), Flavarjan (3.7%), Khomeinishahr (3.7%), Tiran (3.7%), Gol­payegan (3.7%), Ardestan (3.7%) and Lenjan (2.5%). No O. doriae was collected from other counties of the prov­ince.Conclusion: The habitats of O. doriae are more often located in central, eastern and northern regions of the province compared to other regions. Counties of southern and western regions are among cold parts of the province.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 346 | views: 323 | pages: 433-440
    Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm), while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi) had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm) after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

Case Report

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    Background: The larval stages of Gasterophilus are obligate parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of equine account­able for pathologic ulcers in the Persian onager gastrointestinal. The aim of the current report was to study the histo­pathological change with G. pecorum larvae in the esophagus of a Persian onager.Methods: This study was performed in Iranian Zebra propagation and breeding site in Khartouran National Park, southeast of Shahrud City, Semnan Province, Iran in 2014. Following a necropsy with specific refer to esophagus of one adult female Persian onager were transmitted to the laboratory. After autopsy, parasites collected from the esophagus were transmitted into 70% alcohol. For histopathological investigation, tissue samples were collected from the esophagus. The tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and conformity routine processing, there were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin.Results: After clarity by lactophenol parasites were identified as G. pecorum. Microscopic recognition contained hyperemia, inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial destruction, esophageal gland hyperplasia.Conclusion: This is the first survey of G. pecorum and histopathological study in the Persian onager esophagus in the world.