Vol 12 No 3 (2018)

Published: 2018-09-30

Review Article

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    Background: Malaria continues to be a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The endemic foci of the dis­ease are mainly located in south-eastern part of the country. Iran is now launching the elimination of malaria. Studies on the bioecology and susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide are essential in this phase. Methods: The literature on bio-ecology of Anopheles superpictus s.l. Grassi was reviewed in Iran in more than half a century. Different aspects including, distribution, key identification, larval habitats, flight range, seasonal activities, irritability/susceptibility to insecticides, and anthropophilicity index were identified. Results: The adult females of An. superpictus s.l. were susceptible to all WHO-recommended imagicides except DDT. Distribution, morphology, sibling species, larval habitat, flight range, Irritability tests, sustainability index, blood feed­ing preference and related factors were discussed in details Conclusion: Results of the evaluating will help for decision making of authorities for vector control.

Original Article

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 278 | views: 328 | pages: 219-231
    Background: Entomotoxicology as a subset of forensic entomology can be used by analysis of carcass feeding in­sects to detecting of drugs or toxins, as well as the cause and manner of death in cases of ante-mortem drugs intoxi­cation. Morphine is one of the deacetylate metabolites of heroin. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of morphine in insects on the carcass and compare them with decomposing carcass. Methods: Field of this study was in Chalabeh District and toxicological tests were carried out at the Department of Forensic Toxicology, Legal Medicine Center, Kermanshah, Iran in 2017. Morphine was inoculated into live rabbit as experimental model at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50mg/ml, similar to those normally encountered in human over­doses, then quality and quantity of morphine were determined in insects such as Chrysomya albiceps (as the first wave of insect succession on human cadavers) fed on carcass. Results: Quantitative assessment at larvae showed that morphine was detected in all larvae (feeding and post feeding stage) fed on tissues from carcasses administered morphine, except for post-feeding larvae from R1 which received 12.5mg/ml dosage of morphine. Conclusions: Necrophagous insects are an indicator on the scene of crime and a potential source of information about the antemortem situation. Detection of drug in insects which is actually a reflection of the cause of death is possible.
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    Background: We aimed to determine the species composition, richness and diversity indices of the Phlebotomine sand flies at different topographic condition in visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) foci in the northeast of Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2016 in North Khorasan Province. The sampling was focused on rural regions, where human cases of VL and/or CL were diagnosed and reported during last 5 years. Sand flies were collected three times each twenty days during peak periods of seasonal activity. Seven collection methods were used. Some Alpha and Beta diversity indices were calculated.Results: Overall, 7253 sand flies were collected and identified. They were from 19 species of Phlebotominae sand­flies. Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. papatasi were the most prevalent (84.9%) species in the study area. Species rich­ness (S) was very different in three areas and were18, 8, and 4 respectively but Evenness (E) were 0.357, 0.345, and 0.380, so evenness was almost equal in the study areas. Shannon Index (H ) and Margalef Richness Index were cal­culated 1.033, 0.718, 0.527 and 2.117, 0.8998, 0.4006 respectively.Conclusion: The sand fly fauna in North Khorasan Province was very rich and often included some of the most im­portant proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniasis. Species diversity indices (Shannon index, and Simpson’s in­dex) were not high due to decreasing in evenness. The Margalef richness index could accurately reflect the biodiver­sity of sand flies between three subtidal locations.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 256 | views: 403 | pages: 240-251
    Background: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the most medically important families of Diptera. The aims of this study were to determine fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes in Golestan Province, during 2014–15.Methods: This study was conducted in larval habitats of mosquitoes and installed ovitraps in 14 districts of Golestan Province, Northern Iran in 2015. Samples were collected with a scoop by ladle handling for entomology. The col­lected larvae were transferred to Laboratory of Medical Entomology in lactophenol solution. Then microscopic slides were prepared using de Faure's formula. Species of each sample was recognized using diagnostic criteria to identify the Culicidae species. Characteristics of larval breeding places were studied based on the habitat type (Permanent or temporary), water conditions (Clear or turbid, stagnant or running), vegetation (out, in, underwater vegetation or without vegetation), sunlight exposure (Full or partial sunlight) and so on. Data were analyzed using SPSS.Results: Overall, 5661 third- and fourth- instars larvae of mosquitoes were collected and 5 genera and 14 species were identified: Anopheles hyrcanus, An. maculipennis, An. pseudopictus, An. superpictus, Culex hortensis, Cx. mimiticus, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pusillus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniohynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Och­lerotatus caspius, Uranotaenia unguiculata. Culex pipiens was recognized as predominant species of the family. Among the detected species, Cx. pusillus reported for the first time from Golestan Province.Conclusion: Due to the high species diversity of Culicidae, ecology of medical important species such as Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus needs more investigations.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 207 | views: 341 | pages: 252-261
    Background: Since ticks are potent vectors of various diseases, identification of these species are clinically important to protect the public health and control veterinary problems in the communities. We aimed to figure out the frequency of ticks on cows, goats, sheep, lambs, turtles and also obscure hosts in Kurdistan Province, bordered with Iraq June 2012 to May 2013.Methods: The hosts were selected randomly and examined individually for tick infestation. In case of infestation, ticks were collected using forceps and then preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. All collected specimens were preserved in tubes and relative information was recorded and then identified based on morphological characteristics.Results: Totally, 1209 ticks were collected. The prevalence of ticks on cows, sheep, goats, lambs, turtles, poultry and obscure hosts was 11.33%, 55.41%, 6.53%, 5.95%, 0.9%, 8.02% and 11.82% respectively. The mean number of ticks on each animal was 1.6. Number of 5 genera, including Rhipicephalus, Argas, Ornithodoros, Hyalomma and Haem­aphysalis and 9 species; including R. sanguineus (60.05%), R. bursa (0.08), Hy. anatolicum (12.33), Hy. asiaticum (1.49), Hy. aegyptium (0.91), Hy. marginatum (0.08), Haemaphysalis parva (4.22), Hyalomma sp. (0.99), Orni­thodoros lahorensis (11.83), and Argas persicus (8.02) were identified.Conclusion: The most abundant species in this study area was Rh. sanguineus (60.05%). Due to high prevalence of tick specimens and a variety of collected species from sheep (55.41%), the vaccination of sheep and control of tick vectors are recommended.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 184 | views: 326 | pages: 262-268
    Background: Meccus pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is only found in Mexico and is one of the most important vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission there. Because data concerning the ability of this bug to adapt to different environments are scarce, we aimed to elucidate its biology, behavior and ability to acclimatize to different environ­mental conditions.Methods: From the eclosion of 90 1st instar nymphs, development was followed until the adult phase. Adults were fed after 30 days of fasting, and the average amount of blood ingested, the time between the beginning of the blood meal and the production of feces, and the frequency of stools/insect were recorded during their meals. After taking a blood meal, couples were isolated and monitored for 21 days, during which eggs were collected weekly.Results: The development of M. pallidipennis took 171.74±7.03 days to complete its life cycle, and females ingested larger amounts of blood than males. Oviposition was constant and did not demonstrate a significant decrease during this study.Conclusion: Meccus pallidipennis was able to acclimatize to fluctuating laboratorial conditions other than those naturally found in Mexico.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 327 | views: 473 | pages: 269-275
    Background: Development of a topical treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important step in the im­provement of lesion management. Amphotericin B (AmB) is effective against Leishmania species but it is toxic, a Nano-liposomal form of AmB with a size of about 100nm (Lip-AmB) was developed and showed to be effective against Leishmania major, and Leishmania tropica in vitro and against L. major in vivo in animal model. This study was designed to check the irritancy Draize test in rabbits and was completed in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, TUMS, in 2012.Methods: Twenty rabbits in 3 steps were housed individually with artificial lighting (12/12h light/dark). SinaAm­pholeish cream or empty liposomes (prepared under GMP condition at Minoo Company, Tehran, Iran), was applied on a gauze patch and the patches were placed on the designated sites of the skin in the back of the rabbits. At 48 and 72h later, the erythema and oedema were checked, scored and recorded.Results: The erythema score in rabbits was 0.83+0.41 for the SinaAmpholeish and 0.5+0.55 for empty liposomes (P= 0.16). The average score for oedema was 0.67+0.52 for SinaAmpholeish and 0.33+0.52 for empty liposomes (P= 0.16).Conclusion: Based on skin irritancy reactions the topical formulation of SinaAmpholeish is safe and could be further checked in human trials.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 330 | views: 392 | pages: 276-285
    Background: We aimed to focus on the ixodid ticks parasitizing wild mammals and reptiles from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghat, southern India.Methods: The taxonomic identification of ticks collected from wild mammals and reptiles was performed based on the morphology of adults.Results: We revealed eight species of ticks including, Amblyomma integrum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) spinigera, H. (K.) shimoga, H. (K.) bispinosa, H. (Rhipistoma) indica, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and R. sanguineus  s.l. collected from nine species of wild mammals while four tick species Ablyomma kraneveldi, A. pattoni, A. gervaisi and A. javanense parasitizing on four species of reptiles. The highest host rich­ness was shown by H. (K.) bispinosa and R. haemaphysaloides parasitizing six and five different host species, re­spectively.  Reports of R. (B.) annulatus on sambar deer, A. javanense and A. kraneveldi on python as well as A. pat­toni on Indian rat snake are the new host records from this region.Conclusion: Eight species of ticks parasitizing on nine species of wild mammals and four species of parasitizing on four species of reptiles were identified. The highest host richness was shown by H. (K.) bispinosa and R. haemaphy­saloides. H. spinigera as the vector of KFD was also identified in this study.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 152 | views: 280 | pages: 286-295
    Background: Transmission of malaria and dengue in the desert part of India is mainly caused by Anopheles ste­phensi and Aedes aegypti respectively. The maintenance and transmission of the pathogens that cause malaria and dengue are dependent on the physiology of the mosquito vectors. We aimed to measure the energy contents in the mosquitoes transmitting malaria and dengue in the desert part of the country.Methods: Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from six different larval habitats situated in Jodhpur City of Rajasthan state, India. The immature stages of both the mosquitoes were collected once in fortnightly from each loca­tion. Quantitative estimations of the lipid, glucose, and glycogen of the laboratory-reared and field collected An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti were made by spectrophotometric method. The energy contents of the larvae, pupae, fe­males, and males were estimated in triplicates on six different occasions.Results: The lipid content of laboratory-reared larvae, pupae and female mosquitoes of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti was found to be lower than their conspecific field-collected specimens. Whereas, the glycogen content in the la­boratory-reared larvae, pupae and female mosquitoes of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti was higher than that of their conspecific field-collected specimens. The glucose content in all the stages of the laboratory-reared An. stephensi was lower than their conspecific field-collected specimens except in few cases.Conclusion: The higher amount of lipid in field-collected mosquitoes may be because of the availability of food in the natural habitat and adaptation of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes living in desert climate are physiologically better equipped to survive in the desert environment.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 209 | views: 259 | pages: 296-309
    Background: Scorpions have medical importance in the studied area with 2377 cases of envenoming during past six years. This study was the first to explore the scorpion species and dispersion in the Kazerun District during 2014–2015.Methods: The studied sites were selected based on different topographic conditions such as plain, foothill and mountainous which formed four geographical zones with three villages in each zone. The sampling was carried out twice each month throughout the year. Daytime collections were carried out using hand digging tools for moving stones and excavate the borrows, as well as night sampling, is done with the black light device. The co­ordinate of locations was recorded with a GPS. The collected specimens were maintained in 70% ethanol and identified using authorized keys.Results: Overall, 800 scorpions were sampled from different parts of Kazerun District, bringing the species rich­ness to 9 belonged to 3 families of Buthidae, Scorpionidae, and Hemiscorpionidae. The Mesobuthus eupeus (84.6%) was prominent vice versa M. caucasicus (0.1%) had lowest abundance. Other species comprised Comp­sobuthus matthiesseni (5.3%), Androctonus crassicauda (5.0%), Razianus zarudnyi (2.0%), Hemiscorpius lep­turus (1.5%), Orthochirus sp (0.9%), Hottentotta zagrosensis (0.4%), and Scorpio maurus (0.3%). The sea­sonal activity of the scorpions showed a lower peak in Mar, with the main peaks in Aug for the dominant spe­cies. Mesobuthus caucasicus is recorded for the first time in the Fars Province, southern Iran.Conclusion: All the known dangerous scorpions, including H. lepturus, M. eupeus and A. crassicauda were re­vealed in the studied area.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 245 | views: 351 | pages: 310-320
    Background: Anopheles stephensi is a key urban malaria vector in the Indian subcontinent and Middle East includ­ing south and southeast of Iran. Wide application of insecticides resulted in resistance of this species to various insec­ticides in these regions. This study was conducted to reveal the role of metabolic mechanisms in the development of resistance in An. stephensi to DDT and cyfluthrin. Methods: Field mosquito specimens were collected from Chabahar Seaport, southeast corner of Iran, in 2015. Insec­ticide susceptibility and enzyme assays were conducted as recommended by WHO. Results: Mean enzyme ratios were 3.95 and 3.04 for α- esterases and 2.40 and 1.97 for β- esterases in the DDT and cyfluthrin- resistant populations correspondingly compared with the susceptible strain. The GSTs enzyme mean ac­tivity ratios were 5.07 and 2.55 in the DDT and cyfluthrin- resistant populations compared with the susceptible beech strain. The cytochrome p450s enzyme ratios were 1.11 and 1.28 in the DDT and cyfluthrin- resistant populations respectively compared with the susceptible beech strain. Conclusion: Metabolic mechanisms play a crucial role in the development of DDT and cyfluthrin resistance in An. stephensi, therefore, further evaluation of the mechanisms involved as well as implementation of proper insecticide resistance management strategies are recommended.

Short Communication

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    Background: The discovery of an unexpected genetic sequence raised doubts about the specificity of a primer pair targeting Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. This study aimed to check the specificity of this primer pair.Methods: Conventional end-point PCR and real-time PCR protocols using primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. were tested for potential cross-genera amplification using DNA from a palette of parasitic protists and pathogenic bacteria as a template. These investigations took place at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Germany) in 2010 as part of the EDEN project.Results: Successful amplification was obtained with DNA from five apicomplexan genera: Babesia, Theileria, Hepa­tozoon, Toxoplasma, and Hammondia. No amplicons were obtained when DNA from Leishmania infantum or bacte­ria within the genera Borrelia, Leptospira or Anaplasma was used as a template.Conclusion: This cross-genera amplification ability is useful for the quick exclusion of many parasite species from PCR negative diagnostic samples. Accurate species identification from PCR positive samples requires genetic se­quencing of the amplicon.