Vol 11 No 2 (2017)

Published: 2017-06-13

Original Article

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 553 | views: 473 | pages: 182-193
    Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically as they can disperse human patho­genic agents and are especially responsible for food contamination and spreading of food borne pathogens. In this study, part of mtDNA-COI gene of five common pest cockroaches was tested for diagnostic and phylogenetic pur­poses.Methods: We have described barcode region of mtDNA-COI gene of five cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Shelfordella lateralis, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-RFLP method for rapid detection and differentiation of these health pest species.Results: The PCR generates a single 710 bp-sized amplicon in all cockroach specimens, followed by direct se­quencing. AluI predicted from the sequencing data provided different RFLP profiles among five species. There was a significant intra-species variation within the American cockroach populations, but no genetic variation within other species. Accordingly, phylogenetic analysis demonstrates common monophyly for cockroach families in agreement with conventional taxonomy. However S. longipalpa (Ectobiidae) diverged as an early ancestor of other cockroaches and was not associated with other Ectobiidae.Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP protocol might be useful when the conventional taxonomic methods are not able to identify specimens, particularly when only small body parts of specimens are available or they are in a decaying condition. mtDNA-COI gene shows potentially useful for studying phylogenetic relationships of Blattodea order.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 587 | views: 582 | pages: 194-203
    Background: Scorpion sting is a common medical emergency in Iran. The epidemiological features and control of such cases vary from south to north. This review will provide new information about the epidemiology of scorpion stings in different provinces of Iran.Methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, data on scorpionism including incidence rates, mortality as well as locality from 2002 to 2011were collected.Results: Overall, 433203 victims of scorpion stings had been referred to health centers from of all of the 31 prov­inces. The incidence of scorpion stings in 100000 populations was from 54.8 to 66. The highest rate of scorpion stings occurred among the 25–34 yr old group. The highest incidence of scorpion stings during 2011 was observed in Khuzestan Province and the lowest number in Mazandaran Province. The peak number of human cases (scorpion stings) was recorded during May to August.Conclusion: Scorpion stings in Iran are high. It is necessary that physicians and health care professionals should be familiar with local scorpions, especially those that are potentially more dangerous than others, the effective treatment protocols, and supportive care as well as their control of scorpionism
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 533 | views: 478 | pages: 204-210
    Background: Dermatitis caused by Paederus beetle involves many people around the world, especially Iran. The symptoms include redness, itching and severe irritation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Aloe vera cream on the treatment of dermatitis caused by Paederus beetles.Methods: Forty male 6–8 weeks BALB/C mice were randomly divided into four groups of 10 mice. After removing the mice’s back hair, the backs of mice were marked by a circle with a diameter of 3 mm. The Paederus beetles were collected from Babol in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran and transferred to the animal lab of Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The end of abdominal segment Paederus was cut with scissors and hemolymph content was pushed by forceps on the circle. Only hemolymph of one Paederus applied to the back of each mouse. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were treated with the base (vehicle), dexamethasone 0.1%, Aloe vera 0.5% and Aloe vera 2% creams respectively. After 2 days, dermatitis appeared. Then the mentioned creams were applied on the mice once a day. The wound area was measured every day. Dermatitis surface area under curve (AUC) of each mouse was cal­culated for 17 days after induction of dermatitis. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used.Results: Application of Aloe vera 0.5% and 2% significantly reduced the healing duration and dermatitis area in comparison with the vehicle and dexamethasone cream (P< 0.05). But dexamethasone had no significant effect on the healing of dermatitis as compared to vehicle.Conclusion: Aloe vera may clinically effective in the treatment of Paederus dermatitis.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 479 | views: 458 | pages: 211-225
    Background: There are unorganized, published documents about the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern part of Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of larval habitats of Culicidae in Kalaleh County.Methods: Larvae were collected using dipping method and adults by human landing catch technique during April–October, 2012. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded such as vegetation status, and sunlight, water situation. Lacto-phenol and de Faure’s media were used for conserving and mounting samples. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, version 11.5.Results: Out of the 395 larvae collected, 332 were adult mosquitoes comprising; Culiseta, Culex, Anopheles and Ochlerotatus genera and 14 species including An. superpictus, An. maculipennis s.l., An. hyrcanus, An. psudopictus, An. claviger, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. perexiguus, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, Ochlerotatus cas­pius, Oc. echinus and Oc. geniculatus. Culex pipiens larvae were predominant (27.6%) and Cs. subochrea (1%) was found as the lowest species in terms of number. In the adult form, Cx. pipiens (28.9%) was predominant whereas, Cs. subochrea and Cx. perexiguus were reported to have had the lowest frequency.Conclusion: The larvae of An. superpictus and An. maculipennis species as the main vectors of malaria in north of Iran were reported in permanent habitats with clear water and vegetation, full and partial sunlight situations and muddy as well as sandy substrates that are important in larvicide application programs. Exclusive studies are neces­sary to diagnose An. maculipennis species complex using molecular and morphological analysis in the future.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 536 | views: 414 | pages: 226-235
    Background: To study the chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Coccinia grandis against three mosquito species.Methods: Essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using clevenger apparatus and was analyzed for chemical constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Larvicidal activity was recorded after 12 and 24h of post-exposure against three mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefascia­tus. Dead larvae were identified when they failed to move after probing with a needle in the siphon or cervical re­gion. The LC50 and LC90 values for three mosquito larvae were calculated by Probit analysis.Results: The GC-MS analysis revealed that essential oil contains 23 different constituents. Out of these 23 constitu­ents, major constituents identified were n-tetracosane (39.18%), n-eicosane (30.04%), tetratriacotane (2.97%), 7-oc­tadecanal (2.81%), and tricosane (2.31%). Essential oil from leaves of Coccinia grandis exhibited significant larvi­cidal activity against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values 39.41ppm and 123.24ppm, respectively. This was fol­lowed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 48.20ppm, 131.84ppm and 52.80ppm, 135.48ppm, respectively after 24h of exposure.Conclusion: The results could be useful in developing a cost effective, ecofriendly, region specific and practical strategy for the control of mosquito vectors.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 420 | views: 404 | pages: 236-241
    Background: The intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Haemoproteus occur in different avian hosts all over the world. Various genus of blood sucking insects’ families such as Hippoboscidae and Ceratopogonidae could transmit Haemoproteus in avian hosts. There are very limited number of studies on wild infected birds with blood parasites in Iran, so the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Haemoproteus spp. infection in passerine birds from northwest of Iran.Methods: Passerines were collected from four different localities in Zanjan Province, northwest Iran during June to August 2014.Results: Of 86 passerines, we found Haemoproteus infection in 19 (22.09%) individuals. In general, 15 bird species were observed for haemosporidians, of which 53% were infected.Conclusion: Three species of passerines: Petronia petronia, Sitta tephronota and Acrocephalus melanopogon are new host records for Haemoproteus infection in the world. Results acquired by this study support widespread distri­bution of Haemoproteus in passerines and illustrated the prevalence of Haemoproteus species in wild birds of north­west of Iran. Conclusively, our study specified that more investigations are needed to reach exact prevalence rate in different families of birds in Iran.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 696 | views: 502 | pages: 242-248
    Background: Scorpions’ stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems.Methods: In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to mid­night. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied.Results: Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi, Mesobuthus eupeus, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Razianus zarudnyi, Hemiscorpius lepturus, Androctonus crassicauda, Or­thochirus iranus, Odontobuthus bidentatus, Buthacus macrocentrus, Scorpio maurus, and Polisius persicus.Conclusion: Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were iden­tified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 634 | views: 599 | pages: 249-259
    Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho­gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various human dwelling local­ities of urban area of district Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Cockroaches were collected randomly by hand, food baited and sticky traps throughout the year. Four species of cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana (P. amercana), Blattella germanica (B. germanica), Blatta orientalis (B. orientalis), and Blatta lateralis (B. lateralis) were collected and identified from the study site.Results: B. germanica was the most dominant indoor species with highest diversity indices in study areas. Overall cockroach species diversity was highest in July–September, 2013 with highest Simpson index of diversity and Shan­non index as well. P. americana was found second broadly distributed in the study area followed by B. orientalis and B. lateralis were intermediately distributed in residential areas and narrowly distributed in hospitals. Residential ar­eas and hospitals were highly infested with B. germanica followed by P. americana. Population index of B. ger­manica for hospitals was double than residential areas. B. lateralis was observed as displacing B. orientalis in out­door habitat through competing with its habitat and food sources.Conclusion: The infestation rate of different species depends on availability of food sources, sanitary conditions and climatic conditions. Cockroach infestation can be controlled with knowledge about their biology and behavior, at­tention to sanitation and effective use of commercial insecticides.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 627 | views: 447 | pages: 260-277
    Background: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.Methods: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs) of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1) and Ph. luminescens akhurstii (HS1) that tested against Cx. pipiens. B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from different environmental samples in Saudi Arabia, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica (HRM1) and He. sp (HS1) were iso­lated from Egypt. Larvicidal activities (LC50 and LC95) of the potentially active B. thuringiensis strains or TCs were then evaluated at 24 and 48h post-treatment.Results: Three B. thuringiensis isolates were almost as active as the reference B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-H14), and seven isolates were 1.6–5.4 times more toxic than Bti-H14. On the other hand, the TCs of the bacterial sym­bionts, HRM1 and HS1, showed promising larvicidal activities. HS1 showed LC50 of 2.54 folds that of HRM1 at 24h post-treatment. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.Conclusion: Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product(s) that could contribute to the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 411 | views: 394 | pages: 278-285
    Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis), leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla), mint (Mentha spicata) and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis) albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm) while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm) respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm) gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis) shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 454 | views: 382 | pages: 286-301
    Background: Aquatic insects are very abundant and divers groups of insects that are associated with an aquatic or semiaquatic environment in one or more of their life stages. These insects have been, in some cases, well studied because they are vectors of several diseases. This is the first comprehensive faunistic study of aquatic insects from Babol County. The results may provide basic data for further taxonomic and ecological studies of aquatic insects as biological control agent or classification of water quality for the country.Methods: The specimens were collected using different methods including: D-frame net collector, standard mos­quito dipper (350ml), Sweep-Netting and plastic pipette. Sampling carried out in different part of breading places in several times.Results: During this study a total of 196 aquatic specimens were collected from different habitats and were mor­phologically identified including 18 families classified in 6 orders: Diptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. Babol and Amol district in Mazandaran Province are located in humid climate regions with suitable ecological factors of humidity, moderate temperature and the variety of plant species. There are different species of aquatic insects in different habitats.Conclusion: The results will provide information for biodeveristy, species richness, their role for biological control as well as calcification of rivers based on abundance of aquatic insects. Therefore the understanding of ecological specifications of aquatic insects could provide a clue for further Arthropod-borne disease control. Additionally aquatic insect could be used for classification of water bodies
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 294 | views: 330 | pages: 302-308
    Background: The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, is not as common as the German cockroach in Iran. This species seeks out areas that are very warm most of the time, and prefer warmer area than what German cock­roaches pre­fer. There is relationship between development of instars and diet of cockroaches. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different diets on biology, life cycle on nymphal stages of S. longipalpa in laboratory condition prior to investigate the insecticide resistance status of this species in residence area in Iran.Methods: The cockroaches were reared in the insectary of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, condition and the population divided in four equal groups. The effect of four different diets on life cycle of S. longipalpa was studied to determine the effect of them on the lifetime of each nymphal stage.Results: The diets significantly affected on growth and development of immature life stages of S. longipalpa. Based on introduced diets to the cockroache populations, total immature life cycle was 54, 58, 60 and 66 d for diets 2,4,1, and 3 relatively. However, the overall lifetime of S. longipalpa in average was about 225 days.Conclusion: As far as urban pest control is concerned, the result of this study will facilitate any operational pro­grams for control of S. longipalpa. Among the different tested diets, diets 2 and 4 with less duration would be rec­ommended for rearing of S. longipalpa in laboratory condition.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 427 | views: 596 | pages: 309-314
    Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the con­tamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test). Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed) by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 ˚C) were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software.Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35%) in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30%) bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15%) living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. Only mites were found (5%) in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%).Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In posi­tive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 479 | views: 538 | pages: 315-330
    Background: Thymol and carvacrol have previously demonstrated larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). In view of this fact, it was of our interest to obtain synthetic derivatives and evaluate their larvicidal ac­tivity on Ae. aegypti larvae.Methods: Structural modifications were performed on thymol and carvacrol in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for modulating their activities and to lead possibly to more effective larvae control agents. The derivatives were further subjected to SAR and computational studies (molecular modeling and chemometric tools (CPCA and PCA)) to extract structural information regarding their larvicidal properties. Field collected and Rocke­feller populations of Ae. aegypti were used.Results: Carvacrol and thymol exhibited LC50 of 51 and 58ppm for field collected larvae, respectively. Carvacrol derivatives exhibited LC50 ranging from 39 to 169ppm, while thymol derivatives exhibited LC50 ranging from 18 to 465ppm. Substitution of the acidic proton of carvacrol by esters, ethers, and acetic acid resulted in either mainte­nance or reduction of potency.Conclusion: Thymol derivatives were, to a certain extent, more efficient larvicides against Ae. aegypti than carvacrol derivatives, particularly to Rockefeller larvae. The chemometrics tools applied in this study showed that the inde­pendent variables indicate a mixed profile. Nevertheless, hydrophobic interactions increased the larvicidal activity.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 288 | views: 237 | pages: 331-337
    Background: Since Pars Abad district had been known as a focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ardabil Province but the prevalence of the disease in nomadic tribes has not been determined, thus, this study was conducted. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on children up to 12yr old of nomadic tribes from Pars Abad County, Ardabil Province, Iran in 2015. For each individual, a questionnaire including age, sex, clinical manifestations, history of disease, and contact with reservoir hosts of VL were completed, separately. To determine VL seroprevalence, blood samples were collected from the children and after centrifugation, the plasma samples were tested using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS16.Results: From 776 children up to 12yr old, 2 (0.25%) showed anti-L. infantum antibodies at titers 1:1600 and only one case (0.13%) showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers 1:3200. The child with anti-L. infantum antibodies titers of 1:3200 showed mild fever for more than 2 months period, paleness, weakness and mild splenomegaly. After physical examination and confirmation of VL (kala-azar), the patient was treated with antileishmanial drugs.Conclusion: The findings indicated that L. infantum infection is being circulated with low prevalence in nomadic tribes of Pars Abad but it is necessary that the surveillance system is regularly monitored among physicians and pub­lic health managers in the studied areas.

Short Communication

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 547 | views: 684 | pages: 338-343
    Background: Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010–2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12–14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, includ­ing the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97–100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

Review Article

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 467 | views: 413 | pages: 172-181
    Background: The ob­jective of this study was to find an appropriate approach to asymptomatic malaria in elimination setting through a systematic review.Methods: A broad search was conducted to find articles with the words ‘malaria’ in their titles and ‘asymptomatic’ or ‘submicroscopic’ in their texts, irrespective of the type of study conducted. The Cochrane, Medline/PubMed, and Scopus databases, as well as Google Scholar were systematically searched for English articles and reports and Iran’s databases- IranMedex, SID and Magiran were searched for Persian reports and articles, with no time limitation. The study was qualitatively summarized if it contained precise information on the role of asymptomatic malaria in the elimination phase.Results: Six articles were selected from the initial 2645 articles. The results all re-emphasize the significance of asymptomatic malaria in the elimination phase, and empha­size the significance of diagnostic tests of higher sensitivity to locate these patients and perform interventions to re­duce the asymptomatic parasitic reservoirs particularly in regions of low transmission. However, we may infer from the results that the current evidence cannot yet specify an accurate strategy on the role of asymptomatic malaria in the elimination phase.Conclusion: To eliminate malaria, alongside vector control, and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic pa­tients, active and inactive methods of case detection need to be employed. The precise monitoring of asymptomatic individuals and submicroscopic cases of malaria through molecular assays and valid serological methods, especially in regions where seasonal and low transmission exists can be very helpful at this phase.