Vol 8 No 2 (2014)

Published: 2014-12-15

Original Article

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    Background: This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.Methods: It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes col- lected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS soft- ware version19.Results: Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.Conclusion: An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens,their ecology needs to be studied extensively.
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    Background: Anaplasmosis is an important issue for animal breeders in terms of economic losses as well as a health concern to human. Ticks are considered as the main vector of this disease. Lack of documented information about Anaplasma species in Iran was the scope of this study to determine the population of ticks and the presence of Anaplasma in ticks, domestic ruminants and also human beings in northern Iran.Methods: A total of 101 unengorged hard ticks, 78 domestic ruminants and 40 human blood samples collected from Ghaemshahr, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran were tested by nested PCR against 16s rRNA gene of  Anaplasma species.Results: Positive PCR was found in 50 ticks, 28 sheep, 2 cattle, one goat, and 10 human specimens. Sequence analy- sis of the PCR products confirmed presence of A. ovis in two Rhipicephalus sanguineus and two Ixodes ricinus ticks, one human and 4 sheep samples. Moreover one Boophilus annulatus tick and one sheep sample were infected with A. bovis. Furthermore one sample of sheep was infected with A. centrale.Conclusion: This study is the first report of tick infection to A. ovis, A. bovis and human infection to A. ovis in Iran. The result of this study is a survey of Anaplasma infections from ticks, domestic animals and human in Iran which help to have appropriate prevention measures for anaplasmosis.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 315 | views: 512 | pages: 147-155
    Background: Application of plant derivatives have been suggested as alternative sources for mosquito control.Methods: The root essential oil and methanol extract of Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb was tested under laboratory conditions for larvicidal and skin repelleny activities against Anopheles stephensi. The chemical compositions of essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry.Results: Among the five concentrations tested, the 320 ppm of essential oil and 1280 ppm of methanolic extract had the most toxic effects yielding 100% mortality. The LC50 values of C. erecta for both essential oil and methanolic extract were 77.30 and 250.38 ppm, respectively. A total of 19 compounds were identified in essential oil of root. The major components were detected in root essential oil including Cedren-9-one (7.89%), alpha cadinol (5.67%), eugenol (4.02%) and alpha muurolene (3.58%). The protection time of 50% solution of essential oil against bites of An. stephensi was 2.28 hour on white rabbit and the ED50 and ED90 values of the essential oil were 10.12 and 23.01 ppm respectively.Conclusion: The findings suggest that C. erecta oil has a potential source as larvicidal and repellency properties against An.stephensi.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 351 | views: 577 | pages: 156-162
    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trappingmethods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species.Methods: The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast) and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City). Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours), Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2  light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets) and animal-baited trap.Results: A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86%) species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies.Conclusion: Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be  the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 371 | views: 462 | pages: 163-173
    Background: Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and dis- tribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Methods: Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Results: Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The de- tails of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified in- cluding: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus   and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Conclusion: Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic con- dition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.
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    Background: A two year seroepidemiological study was designed to find out the seroprevalence and risk factors ofcanine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among stray and owned dogs in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran.Methods: Blood samples of  602 dogs living in  11  counties of  Tehran and  Alborz  Provinces were  taken by venipuncture in 2008–2010. After separation of blood sera, anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT).Results: Overall, of the 408 and 194 serum samples collected randomly from dogs in 11 localities in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, 18/408 (4.41%) and 12/194 (6.18%) respectively were found positive. Among the localities, Shemiran in Tehran Province and Karaj In Alborz Province had the highest prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found between sex and living place but there was significant difference between living status (owned or stray) and CVL infection of dogs in Alborz Province (P= 0.018). The highest seroprevalence (7.5%) was found in dogs aged 3 to 5 years old. Only 20% of the seropositive dogs were symptomatic.Conclusion: Concerning possible human infections in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, both symptomatic and asymptomatic seropositive dogs should be considered as a risk.
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    Background: Anopheles culicifacies is an important vector of malaria in Southeast Asia, contributing to almost 70%of malaria cases in India. It exists as a complex of five morphologically indistinguishable species A, B, C, D and E with varied geographical distribution patterns. In India, 8% of the total population of Madhya Pradesh (Central India) contributes about 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths. An. culicifacies is the major malaria vector in this state. Vector control mainly relies on the proper identification and distribution of vector species exists in a particular area. The present study was carried out to identify the distribution of An. culicifacies sibling species in certain endemic district of Central India, Madhya Pradesh.Methods: The An. culicifacies mosquitoes collected from the study districts were identified morphologically. The genomic DNA was isolated from the mosquitoes and subjected to Allele specific PCR targeting D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA.Results: The mean prevalence of An. culicifacies during the study period was in the range of 8–120 per man per hour (PMH). From the study areas species B was identified from Jabalpur, Chindwara and Hoshangabad, Species C from Hoshangabad only, Species D from Narsinghpur and Khandwa and sibling species E from Mandla, Chindwara and Hoshangabad respectively.Conclusion: This  is  the  first  report  to  detect  species  E  from  Madhya  Pradesh  region  which  necessitate  for reconsideration of species distribution of each An. culicifacies sibling species that would enable to develop required vector control strategies.
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    Background: Aquatic insects are the  major groups of arthropods that spend  some parts of their life cycle in the water. These insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. There is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of Iran.Methods: To study the aquatic insects fauna, adult, nymphal and larval collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard technique in Zayandeh Roud River, Isfahan Province,central Iran, during summer 2011. Results: In total, 741 speimens of aquatic insects were collected and morphologically identified. They include 7 families and 12 genera representing 2 Orders. The order of  Diptera (92.31%) and Coleoptera (7.69%). The families Culicidae, Syrphidae and Chironomidae from Diptera order, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Hydrophilidae from Coleoptera order were identified.Conclusion: Some aquatic insects play an important role for transmission of human and animal diseases. These insects also are important for biological control. Therefore ecological study on aquatic insects can provide information about ecology of insects in an area for any decision making.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 311 | views: 706 | pages: 139-146
    Background: Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in many parts of Iran. Recently its incidence isconsiderable in different parts of Jahrom district, in Fars Province, southern Iran. The aims of our study were to in- vestigate the prevalence of leishmania infection, and identify and characterize the  Leishmania species present, among the rodents by molecular methods in a new endemic focus of ZCL, in an urban and rural area of the Jahrom district, Fars Province, southern Iran.Methods: From May to November 2010), 55 rodents in four regions of Jahrom focus were caught and checked for leishmania infection by the microscopical examination of liver, spleen, ears, and footpads’ smears.Results: Overall 18 Meriones persicus, 15 Tatera indica, 14 Mus musculus, and 8 Rattus rattus were caught. Totally, four (16.5%) and two (13.3%) of the Me. persicus and Ta. indica, but only one of Mu. musculus and Ra. rattus were found smear-positive for leishmania amastigotes, respectively. In the nested-PCR assay 8 (14.6%) smears were found positive for Leishmania major, none was found positive for any other Leishmania species. Sequencing based detection of Leishmania confirmed the microscopic and PCR findings. All positive specimens were shown 95–96% similarity with L. major Friedlin.Conclusion: Tatera indica and Me. persicus are incriminated as the main ‘reservoir’ hosts of L. major in the rural area of Jahrom, moreover, Mu. musculus and Ra. rattus have the minor but remarkable role in the maintenance of the disease in the urban regions of Jahrom focus.
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    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fos- tered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species- Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Methods: Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20–400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition be- havior) against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50), while OAI (Oviposition activity index) was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Results: Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P.  juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466) at 100ppm.Conclusion: Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P.juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

Short Communication

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    Background: Passeromyia is a muscid genus previously known from the Old World Afrotropical and Oriental re- gions and eastwards from Australia and the West Pacific. The genus is known from nest-dwelling larvae which may be parasites of the nestlings. This study was aimed to identify of the Passeromyia species in the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands.Methods: The flies were collected during April 2010 to March 2011 on the 4 Iranian Persian Gulf islands, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm with fly bottle trap and entomological net.Results: During this sampling, 18 representatives of P. heterochaeta, a species with free-living haematophagous larvae, have been collected. The species is reported herein from Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm islands.Conclusions: This is the first Palaearctic record of the species as well as the first report of the genus Passeromyia from the Palaearctic Region.
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    Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors fortransmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012.Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethanol, then transported to the laboratory of Zabol University of Medi- cal Sciences. Following examinations under stereomicroscope, ticks were identified using available taxonomic keys. Results: In this study, a total number of 469 adult ticks (381 males and 88 females) were collected. Ticks were clas- sified into 2 genera and 9 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (17.3%), Hy. schulzei (1.8%), Hy. marginatum (0.5%), Hy. anatolicum excavatum (12.60%), Hy. anatolicum anatolicum (11.2%), Hy. asiaticum asiaticum (11.0%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (21.2%), Rh. bursa (10.2%) and  Rh. turacunis (13.911%). The frequency of  genus Hyalomma (54.6%) was higher than Rhipicephalus. Rh. sanguineus was the predominant tick species and accounted for 21.26% of the ticks. The ratio of males was more than the female ticks.Conclusion: Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus spcies are commonly distributed in the study area. Further investiga- tions are needed to identify the role of above tick species as vectors of pathogenic organisms.

Case Report

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    Loxosceles rufescens, commonly known as the Mediterranean Recluse or Mediterranean Fiddle-Back Spider is recorded from Iran for the first time. The genus Loxosceles contains 103 accepted species, two of them (including L. rufescens) are cosmopolitan. All Loxosceles species tested so far possess necrotic venoms, which is a unique characteristic among the Order Araneae. Considering this characteristic, it is of medical importance to determine a specific geographical distribution of these spiders. Collecting methods include visual inspection and direct hand collecting. All of the specimens were collected in Tehran.Six specimens of both sexes were collected from parks, houses and apartments. The characteristics of the genus, which are the unique arrangement of six eyes in three diads, the violin shaped mark on the cephalothorax, and the short tibia of adult male palpi with narrow base and it’s embolus which is about as long as the width of the globular bulb were observed and recorded. Having the cytotoxicity of the venom and its urban distribution in mind, L. rufescens is probably among the more important spider species of Iran. Since there are no reports of loxoscelism from Iran, we assume that the bites are either infrequent or misdiagnosed. Therefore further studies are needed to clarify the medical importance degree of this species.

Review Article

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    Background: Due to various climatic conditions in different parts of Iran, presenting of various kinds of human myiasis is expected. Despite of a few case series, most papers related to myiasis are case reports originated from various parts of Iran. This study discusses on different clinical features of myiasis in Iran and description of one case from Tehran as a representative to nosocomial infection in Iran.Methods: The information needed for this descriptive study was derived mainly from the digital library of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The larvae have been identified with observing on posterior spiracles, spines of their body and anal tubercles.Results: Total number of reported myiasis cases from Iran is 77 which can be categorized clinically as furuncular, wound, ophthalmic, auricular, nasopharyngeal, oral, intestinal and genitourinary. Based on parasitological features, all myiasis agents in Iran are belonging to Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oestridae and Syrphidae flies. The case which is reporting in this paper can be mentioned as representative of nosocomial myiasis which it seems to be un- derreported because of some medicolegal reasons.Conclusion: Low number of investigations on various aspects of human myiasis, as well as incuriosity to report of the cases in disease reporting system of health minister, made the myiasis as a neglected disease.