Vol 11 No 4 (2017)

Published: 2017-12-30

Original Article

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    Background: We analyzed the external morphology and the external male genitalia of specimens of Nesotriatoma flavida of a laboratory colony founded with specimens from Guanahacabiles in Pinar del Río Province in the west of Cuba in 1980. This species was at first identified as different from N. bruneri and then later considered synonymous.Methods: We proposed to revise the morphological characters with which these species were considered as different and then later synonymous, such as the fossula spongiosa or spongy grooves, length of the first antenna segment, relationship length of eye to interocular distance, the form of the phallosome, phallosome support, and the endosome processes.Results: The results of the analyses of these characters in the specimens of our colony, and of the corresponding works where the separation and synonymy of these species has been proposed, allow us to sustain the revalidation of the synonymy between N. flavida and N. bruneri.Conclusion: Based on the body external morphology and the male external genitalia of N. flavida it is concluded that N. flavida and N. bruneri are synonymous species.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 312 | views: 761 | pages: 453-462
    Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1%) were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50) and 90% mortality (LC90) of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.
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    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal zoonotic viral disease caused by infection with a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus. In this study, we investigated the incidence of brucellosis in patients diag­nosed with CCHF.Methods: Overall, 169 patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of CCHF were included in 2011 in To­kat/ Turkey. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and/or PCR results were used in the laboratory diagnosis of CCHF, while plate and standard tube agglutination (STA) tests were used to diagnose brucellosis.Results: Overall, 120 patients (79%) with positive PCR tests were diagnosed with CCHF. Five (4.16%) were also diag­nosed with brucellosis based on the positive plate and STA test results. Four patients (2.36%) had negative CCHF PCR and positive STA test results.Conclusion: Brucellosis and CCHF can mimic each other and that all patients with CCHF or brucellosis should be screened for both conditions.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 307 | views: 303 | pages: 469-481
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of deltamethrin combined with formulated piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist on various surfaces against the wild strain of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Southern Iran under semi-field condition.Methods: Four concentrations of deltamethrin WG 25% (Tagros) and PBO 800EC-UV (Endura) were prepared and sprayed on the pre-designed surfaces in accordance with WHO alliance line of the IRS Micronair®. The WHO’s rec­ommended bioassay kit and method was used during this study.Results: Comparing the mortality rate of mosquitoes, the results showed a significant difference between months after treatment of IRS (Indoor Residual Spraying) (P< 0.05) but didn’t show any significant differences between days during the first and second months (P> 0.05).Statistical test revealed a significance difference between mortality rate of mosquitoes in exposing to concentrations of 1 and 4 (P< 0.05) which demonstrated effect of synergizing PBO on mortality rate.Conclusion: This research as the first semi-field trial on deltamethrin added to different concentrations of formulated PBO for IRS, indicates that deltamethrin+10X PBO is more effective than other concentrations. Therefore, using syner­gists can be suggested as a new tool for prevention of pyrethriod resistance, although more studies are recommended.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 309 | views: 360 | pages: 482-496
    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector borne diseases in the world, transmitted by sand flies. Despite efforts to prevent the spread of the disease, cases continue worldwide. In Iran, the disease usually occurs in children under 10 years.  In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate is 95–100%. The main objective of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of visceral leishmaniasis as well as its correlation with climatic factors for determining high-risk areas in an endemic focus in northwestern Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on VL cases were collected from local health centers in Ardabil Prov­ince, Iran during 2001–2015 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS23 and ArcMap Spatial Analyst. MaxEnt model was used to determine ecologically suitable nichesfor the disease.Results: Two hotspots were found in Meshkinshahr and Germi counties with 59% and 23% of total cases, respec­tively. There was an increase in the incidence rate of VL in Ardabil County from 2.9 in 2009 to 9.2/100,000 population in 2015. There was no spa­tial autocorrelation between county and total number of cases (P> 0.05). Higher NDVI, lower altitude and southern as­pects had positive effects on the presence probability of VL.Conclusion: The number of cases of this disease have been rising since 2013 and doubled in 2015. According to the derived distribution maps, the disease is spreading to new locations such as Ardabil and Namin counties.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 338 | views: 347 | pages: 497-503
    Background: Many elements such as immunosuppressive, chemotactic and anti-inflammatory peptide that could effect on human and animals physiologic system were determined in venom. This study evaluated the use of Meso­buthus eupeus scorpion venom fractions as an immunomodulator.Methods: The venom fractions collected from Khuzestan Province in South West of Iran were purified by ion ex­change chromatography. Elution of the bounded elements was done by using a linear gradient of sodium chloride (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 2 molar). The fractions were analyzed by Bradford spectrophotometric and SDS-PAGE method. After treatments of chicken with venom fractions and sheep red blood cell (SRBC), direct hae­magglutination test in microtiter plate was used for the determination of the chicken SRBC antibody titer.Results: The fraction released by NaCl 1.25M had the highest protein concentration. The highest and lowest anti­body titer was determined at the fifth (NaCl 0.75 molar) and seventh fraction (NaCl 1.25 molar), respectively.Conclusion: Different protein profile of isolated fractions, were associated with various effect on immune response. Both enhancing and suppressing of the chicken humoral immune response to SRBC were observed after M. eupeus faction’s venom treatment. It is due to biological functions of venom components. Purification of these elements would provide the new agents for immune responses manipulation.
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    Background: Establishment of sand flies laboratory colonies is essential to understand various biological aspects of Phlebotominae sand flies. The aims of the current study were to establish the colony of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot (1917), the main vector of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in old world, and to study biological parameters of this species.Methods: The sand flies were reared at 26–28 °C temperature, 14:10 (light: dark) photoperiod and 70–80% relative humidity. Larval diet was a composted mixture of rabbit faces and rabbit pellets which is prepared through a special process. First to fifth generations of P. sergenti were used to define biological parameters.Results: Results showed that, P. sergenti blood feeding percentage were 42% on chicken, 21% on BALB/c and 37% on golden hamster. Average time of blood digestion, egg incubation, 1st instar larva, pupa and adult emerging was recorded at 3.4, 8.7, 15, 33.3 and 41.2 days after blood feeding, respectively. Mean number of laid eggs was 55.1 and retained eggs were 35 per a female. Fecundity and production rate were 61.6%, and 42.2% respectively. Average longevity recorded at 15.2 days for females and 14.8 days for males.Conclusion: Colony of P. sergenti has been established for the first time in Iran. Average interval time from egg to adult of this species was 32.5 days. Chicken and golden hamster were recommended as a blood source for colony initiation and routine blood feeding, respectively. 
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    Background: Enterobacter cloacae bacterium is a known symbiont of the most Anopheles gut microflora and nominated as a good candidate for paratransgenic control of malaria. However, the population dynamics of this bacterium with­in An. stephensi and its introduction methods to the mosquitoes have not yet been explored.Methods: Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens expressing green fluorescent protein and defensin (GFP-D) was used to study transstadial transmission and the course of time, larval habitat, sugar, and blood meal on dynamics of the bacterium in the mosquito life stages in the laboratory condition. The bacterial quantities were measured by plating samples and counting GFP expressing colonies on the Tet-BHI agar medium.Results: The E. cloacae population remained stable in sugar bait at least for eleven days whereas it was lowered in the insectary larval habitat where the bacteria inadequately recycled. The bacterium was weakly transmitted transstadi­ally from larval to adult stage. The bacterial populations increased smoothly and then dramatically in the guts of An. stephensi following sugar and blood meal respectively followed by a gradual reduction over the time.Conclusion: Enterobacter cloacae was highly stable in sugar bait and increased tremendously in the gut of female adult An. stephensi within 24h post blood meal. Sugar bait stations can be used for introduction of the transgenic bacteria in a paratransgenic approach. It is recommended to evaluate the attraction of sugar bait in combination with attractive kairomones as well as its stability and survival rate in the semi-field or field conditions.

Case Report

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    Background: Urinary myiasis is a form of myiasis caused mainly by larvae of Fannia scalaris, Musca, Sarcophaga, Lucilia, Wohlfahrtia, Calliphora, and rarely by Eristalis and Clogmia albipunctata.Methods: This report presents a case of female patient complaining of dysuria and frequency of micturition associ­ated with intermittent passage of small, motile, dark-colored worm-like organisms in urine. She was a married housewife aged 24 years old referred from the Tropical Outpatient Clinic of Beni-Suef University Hospital, Egypt. The patient was subjected to a full questionnaire sheet and investigations such as CBC, stool and urine analysis and uri­nary ul­traso­nography. Collected larvae and pupae from urine samples were examined macroscopically and micro­scopically.Results: The examined larvae and pupae belonged to C. albipunctata. Ivermectin was prescribed to the patient with complaint withdrawal and complete disappearance of the larvae from urine.Conclusion: This study reports the first case of urinary myiasis caused by C. albipunctata in Beni-Suef Governorate, the second in Egypt and third case worldwide. The study throws some light on the medical importance and manage­ment of urinary myiasis.