Vol 13 No 2 (2019)

Published: 2019-06-24

Original Article

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 221 | views: 277 | pages: 126-134
    Background: Dengue fever (DF) has become a major public health concern globally. It is an infection caused by a virus of the family Flaviviridae, with five serotypes (DENV 1–5). Recent years have seen an increase in the preva­lence of the disease in Pakistan. The current study was carried out to evaluate the clinical features, laboratory find­ings and demographic information of the patients reported during the dengue outbreak in Multan of Pakistan in 2015. Methods: The hospital documentation-based data of confirmed DF cases were collected for the 6 months period from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Multan, Pakistan. The patients were labeled as confirmed on the basis of NS1 and IgM positivity by ELISA. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS.Results: Overall, 361 patients were investigated (78.67% males and 21.33% females), with maximum infection rate in the age group of 18–35yr (50.41%). Mean hospital stay was 2.64d (SD 1.2), while mean fever duration was 5.27 (SD 1.57). Outbreak occurred during the months from Jul–Dec, while maximum patients were reported in Oct (287). No mortality was reported, and all patients recovered.Conclusion: Better management practices and timely reporting can reduce the risk factors associated with the dis­ease.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 226 | views: 238 | pages: 135-144
    Background: Malaria is an important mosquito-borne disease considered as one of the public health concerns across many countries. Anopheles mosquitoes are the main vectors of Plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria. Some of these vectors such as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi are considered as complex of sibling species distributed in north of Iran.Methods: This study was conducted in north and northwest of Iran including East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ar­dabil, Golestan and North Khorasan provinces with emphasis on the northern borders of the country during 2015–2016. Adult specimens were collected and subjected to morphological identification as well as molecular analysis.Results: Overall, 10405 mosquitoes were collected comprising 21 species. Culex pipiens and Cx. theileri were found as the most frequent species in whole study area. Morphological identification showed that out of 1455 female Anoph­eles specimens, 77% belonged to An. maculipennis Group. Out of the identified species, ITS2 region and COI gene sequences of 8 An. maculipennis s.s. and 31 An. sacharovi representing all provinces were obtained and submitted to GenBank. The COI sequences for An. sacharovi revealed the presence of 9 haplotypes with similarity of 98.17–100%.Conclusion: Some investigations have reported An. martinius as a member of sibling species of An. sacharovi among Iranian Anopheles genus; while based on our study, there was no evidence of the presence of this species in north and northwest of Iran.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 178 | views: 245 | pages: 145-152
    Background: Regarding the antimonial-resistant of Leishmania spp., understanding of related mechanism is neces­sary. One of the most important involved molecules is aquaglyceropin1 (AQP1). The aim of this study was molecu­lar analysis of AQP1 gene from antimonial-resistant clinical isolates and its expression.Methods: Overall, 150 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referring to the reference laboratories of Yazd and Varzaneh,, located 105km southeast of Isfahan and 240km away from Yazd, were assessed from Jun 2015 to Dec 2017. After sampling, staining was done and evaluated for Leishman by microscope. Samples were collected in RNAlater solution for gene expression analysis in non-healing isolates. DNA extraction was performed from each slide with Leishman body. All patients with L. major isolates detected by ITS1-PCR-RFLP were followed for find­ing the resistant isolates, consequence of molecular characterization of AQP1 using PCR-RFLP. Gene expression of AQP1 from all resistant isolates was assessed in comparison with the one in a sensitive isolate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. The significance level was considered ≤0.05.Results: Five isolates were detected as antimonial resistant. Molecular detection and identification were appeared that all were L. major. The molecular characterization of AQP1 showed G562A mutation. Gene expression of AQP1 in resistant isolates showed 1.67 fold higher than the sensitive isolate.Conclusion: We reported a new point mutation of G562A in AQP1 gene involved in molecular mechanism in re­sistant isolates.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 272 | views: 321 | pages: 153-164
    Background: Ticks are obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites of vertebrates. Since many tick identification studies are based on the analysis of 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA and ITS-1, 2 rDNA genes, we aimed to compare the performance of these molecular markers of common use for the identification of ticks, under a diagnostic laboratory environment.Methods: Overall, 192 tick specimens were collected through the state of Texas  from January  2014 to August 2015 and the species was determined by both morphology and molecular amplification using the 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, ITS1 and ITS2.Results: The species collected were identified by molecular techniques as Dermacentor albipictus, D. variabilis, Am­blyomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis, A. cajennense, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Carios capensis. ITS1 and ITS2 were not able to prove consistent amplification and therefore have been considered as potential markers for tick iden­tification.Conclusion: The use of mitochondrial genes in tick identification showed to provide more consistent results in the diagnostic environment.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 179 | views: 229 | pages: 165-176
    Background: Mosquitoes are very important vectors of diseases to human. We aimed to establish the first spatial database on the mosquitoes of Isfahan Province, central Iran, and to predict the geographical distribution of species with medical importance.Methods: Mosquito larvae were collected from eight counties of Isfahan Province during 2014. Collected data were transferred to a database in ArcGIS and the distribution maps were created. MaxEnt model and jackknife analysis were used to predict the geographical distribution of two medical important species, and to find the effective varia­bles for each species.Results: Totally, 1143 larvae were collected including 6 species, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus s.l., An. marteri, Culex hortensis, Cx. theileri and Culiseta longiareolata. The area under curve in MaxEnt model was 0.951 and 0.873 rather 1 for An. maculipennis s.l. and Cx. theileri, respectively. Culex theileri had wider and more appropriate niches across the province, except for the eastern area. The environmental variable with highest gain was mean tem­perature of the wettest quarter for Cx. theileri and temperature seasonality for An. maculipennis. Culex theileri, An. maculipennis s.l. and An. superpictus, three important vectors of parasitic agents to humans, were collected in this study.Conclusion: The mosquito collected and mapped can be considered for transmission of malaria and filariasis in the region. Bearing in mind the results of niche modeling for vector species, more studies on vectorial capacity and re­sistance status to different insecticides of these species are recommended.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 163 | views: 236 | pages: 177-184
    Background: House dust mite (HDM) is associated with hypersensitivity such as asthma. It is suggested that patients with asthma benefit from improved living environment by reducing HDM exposure. In this study, we examined the effects of commercialized diatomaceous earth product, Casaggia® used as construction materials, on hypersensitivity in HDM-sensitized mice. Methods: Male mice were sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) extract for 7 days and then housed in diatomaceous earth (DE)-coated cages for 14 days. Levels of cytokine were determined using ELISA. White blood cell counts were recorded over 21 days. Histological analysis was conducted to determine the remodeling of respiratory tract. Results: The data showed that exposure to diatomaceous earth (DE) resulted in a suppression in elevated eosinophilia induced by HDM in mice. In addition, elevated serum IgE responding to HDM sensitization were restored in the presence of DE. The result revealed that DE ameliorated the inflammation progression in airway. Conclusion: Environmental exposure to DE is suggested to benefit patients with hypersensitivity through relieving inflammatory symptoms. In a sense of prevention, DE represents a potential material against development of asthma.  
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 246 | views: 196 | pages: 185-190
    Background: The excessive use of pesticides for crops by farmers, their destructive effects on beneficial organisms, such as bees, have become a big problem today. This study was designed to find out if the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the honey be affected by diazinon.Methods: Six hives were purchased, 3 hives in Bandar-Abbas and remaining were considered for Meshkinshahr. Plants around the hive were sprayed with diazinon at a concentration of 2/1000. Sampling took place 15d after spraying, and diazinon residue was measured by the HP TLC. The study was conducted in 2017–2018.Results: The amount of diazinon residue in honey and honey bee was measured and compared with existing studies. The amount of diazinon residue in honey bee was found to be 0.017mg/kg in Bandar Abbas, and 0.005mg/kg in Meshkinshahr hives. There was nothing in honey.Conclusion: Honey is safe for consumers.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 185 | views: 287 | pages: 191-197
    Background: To investigate the diversity of the genus Aedes present in the natural areas of Ardabil Province, north-west of Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from Apr to Oct 2016 in North-western of Iran. Thirty-three areas of 10 cities which are border areas were selected randomly. The larvae were collected 2 times in each month during the seasonal activities of mosquitoes and the larvae were identified morphologically according to the ap­propriate identification keys.Results: Overall, 694 larvae were collected from four counties, from which only 7.2% were Aedes larvae. Three species of Aedes were identified which include Ae. caspius, Ae. vexans and Ae. flavescens. Aedes flavescens is reported from Ardabil Province for the first time.Conclusion: Aedes species were a high density in borderline of Iran and Azerbaijan. Therefore, the north parts of Ardabil Province are a suitable habitat for Aedes species mosquitoes. Care should be taken for vector control in the case of occurrence of any arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 233 | views: 246 | pages: 198-205
    Background: Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are two main species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Iran. Recently, Crithidia spp. has also been reported in the wound of patients with CL. In this study, we determined the species causing CL in the southern of Iran and the role of Crithidia spp. in creating skin ulcers.Methods: In this cross-sectional study from Apr to Sep 2016, 66 patients with CL referred to Diagnostic Lab of Leishmaniasis, Valfajr Health Center, Shiraz, Iran, were selected. After DNA extraction from the Giemsa stained smears, all samples were amplified in two separate steps using specific primers, firstly, to differentiate Leishmania species and then to identify Crithidia spp.Results: Two species L. major and L. tropica were responsible for 60 and 6 cases, respectively. Moreover, in two patients, mixed infection with Crithidia was confirmed. In mix infection cases, the morphology of the cutaneous ul­cers was not different from the wounds of other patients.Conclusion: Leishmania major is responsible for the most common CL in southern Iran. In addition, in two patients with L. major and L. tropica, mix infection with Crithidia was confirmed. The potential role of Crithidia as the main factor for CL and the probability of this parasite to have synergistic effects on Leishmania, as a hypothesis, requires more comprehensive researches on the ambiguity of this protozoon.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 128 | views: 196 | pages: 206-213
    Background: To overcome human malaria problem several solutions have been employed including extensive studies in the field of Plasmodia relevant antigens. The aim of this study was to determine allelic variation in the MSP1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum among some falciparum malaria-infected patients in Southeastern Iran.Methods: Twenty P. falciparum positive cases were enrolled from Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran in 2013–15. From each case, 1.5ml of peripheral blood was collected into EDTA contained tubes. Thick and thin blood smears were stained with standard Giemsa stain and were checked with conventional microscopical method. DNA was extracted from blood samples and amplification of block 2 MSP1 was performed using specific primers. Gel electropho­resis was done and results showed some amplification fragments corresponding to block 2 regions of Pf MSP1 gene. Finally, four samples from different allelic types were sent for sequencing process.Results: Fragments were different in size, so classified into six allelic types as kinds of 1–6 based on happening fre­quencies. Digestion of PCR products revealed two sub allelic types (A and B) within allelic types 2 and 3, but not in al­lelic types 1, 4, 5 and 6. Twenty percent of samples were sent for sequencing. Sequence alignment showed 78.95% to 91.83% identity between samples.Conclusion: Identity between samples and phylogenetic tree revealed that there is an extensive diversity range among isolates. Fifty percent of the isolates were under the risk of complicated malaria. Two of these patients (10%) needed special care and recovery was obtained after getting hospital services.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 233 | views: 219 | pages: 214-223
    Background: Rhipicephalus bursa is a hard tick with importance in transmission of tick-borne diseases and zoono­sis. Natural products are excellent alternative to pesticides. In this study for the first time, lethal and repellent activity of Zingiber officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus against Rh. bursa were studied.Methods: In July till September of 2017, essential oils were extracted in Shahrekord University, Iran from fresh plant materials and engorged mature ticks were collected from infested sheep herd located in Saman, Iran. Ticks were challenged by different concentrations of essential oils including 300, 500 and 800µl/ml and 1 (pure) singly and/or in combination. Percentages of killed and repellent ticks as efficacy of acaricidal and repellent activity of es­sential oils against Rh. bursa were calculated and analyzed statistically.Results: Efficacy of eucalyptus essential oils was more in whole concentrations and its highest performance was observed in concentration 1 (pure). Efficacies of ginger and combined essential oils were different for each concen­tration but their highest efficacies were observed in concentration 1 (pure), too.Conclusion: This study showed considerable values of acaricidal and repellent activity against Rh. bursa for both essential oils singly and in combination, so they can be considered as potent lethal/repellent agents for control of ticks, but more studies need for this purpose, study on lethal/repellent activity of these essential oils and/or other plants against other important arthropods can be considered as subjects for next experiments.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 267 | views: 327 | pages: 224-233
    Background: Whether zoonotic or not, arboviral infections are continuing to be a major threat to human health as well as the livestock industry all around the world. This project presented the results of the identification study on five arboviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), Bovine ephemeral fever virus, Akabane virus, Bluetongue virus, and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, in mosquitos and midges from eight provinces of the Black Sea Region.Methods: During 2011 and 2012, 3193 mosquitoes were captured around natural streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds using dry-baited miniature light-traps. Identification studies were concluded by employing molecular methods.Results: According to the morphological identification, blood-sucking mosquitoes and biting-midges belonged to Aedes (44.69%), Anopheles (28.34%), Culex (22.14%) and Culicoides (4.83%) species. Overall, 146 pools were made up of captured mosquitos and midges. None of the five viruses were directly identified by mosquitoes.Conclusion: Mosquitoes and midges have got a crucial role in the transmission of arboviruses. The risk of occurrence for the investigated arboviruses will continue depending upon many factors including the presence of these viruses in Turkey and its neighboring countries, uncontrolled livestock movements, global warming and climate changes.