Vol 13 No 3 (2019)

Published: 2019-10-01

Review Article

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    Background: Leishmaniasis represents the important public health problem in the world. One of the main objectives of World Health organization is capacity building of managers and authorities who are involved with diseases control ac­tivities.Methods: The course was conducted in Esfahan Health Research and Training Center (E.H.R.T.C) in summer 2005 and 2009. The course carried out jointly by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOH) of Iran, World Health Or­ganization-Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (WHO-EMRO) and School of Public health, Tehran University of Med­ical Sciences (SPH-TUMS) and designed for medical officers, senior technicians and managers involved in leish­mania­sis control. Prior to initiate the course, pre-test evaluations including different subjects on leishmaniasis and its control were carried out. The examinations include multiple choice questions. The duration of the course was 3 weeks. A total of 206 contact hours were taught. The main subjects were Basic epidemiology, Leishmaniasis parasitology, Leishmaniasis en­tomology, control of vectors and reservoirs, principles of integrated pest management, Field work and Planning. Dif­ferent methods of teaching including lecture, laboratory, workshop, team work, field exercise and presen­tation were used. Requirement for achievement of the course was to have at least 60% of the total mark for awarding the diploma certificate.Results: A total of 45 participants from Iraq, Afghanistan and Iran graduated from this course.Conclusion: The course is providing the skill for managers, how to combat against disease in their country and is paral­lel to the policy of the leishmaniasis control for capacity building in endemic areas of their countries.

Original Article

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    Background: Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is an important vector of several pathogens. This mosquito is widely distributed throughout the world. We aimed to determine the susceptibility levels of Cx. pipiens populations to some synthetic pyrethroid insecticides in Antalya, Turkey.Methods: The immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from eight locations in Alanya, Döşemealtı, Kemer, Kumluca, and Manavgat districts of Antalya between Apr and Oct of 2017. Adult susceptibility tests were carried out according to a modified version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassay. In the tests, the World Health Organization recommended diagnostic doses; permethrin (0.75%), etofenprox (0.5%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) were used.Results: As a result of the susceptibility tests, deltamethrin was the least effective insecticide and it caused 58.78–97.56% mortalities on Cx. pipiens populations while permethrin was the most effective substance that caused 100% mortality on all populations. While all of the tested populations were found susceptible to permethrin, and possible resistant or resistant to deltamethrin. Etofenprox and lambda-cyhalothrin led to 91.54–100% and 93.1–100% mortali­ties, respectively.Conclusion: The possible resistance or resistance to deltamethrin in all the areas is caused by the widespread use of this chemical against pests in agriculture and public health applications for long-term. Moreover, a concordance was found between resistance levels and the intensity of pesticide application in agriculture and public health, and organic and chemical pollution levels in the sampled habitats.
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    Background: Commercial insecticides were widely used by communities to control the mosquito population in their houses. D-allethrin is one of insecticide ingredients widely distributed in two different concentrations namely 0.15% of aerosol and 0.3% of coil formulations. We aimed to understand the mortality of indoor mosquitoes after being exposed to d-allethrin 0.15% (aerosol) and 0.3% (coil) formulations.Methods: This quasi-experiment study applied the posttest-only comparison group design. The aerosol and coil d-al­lethrin were used to expose the wild mosquitoes in twelve dormitory bedrooms of SMKN Jawa Tengah, a vocational high school belonging to Central Java Provincial Government, on March 2017. The compounds were exposed for 60 min to each bedroom with four-week interval for both of formulations. The knockdown mosquitoes were collected into a plastic cup and delivered to the laboratory for 24h holding, morphologically species identification and mortality re­cording. History of insecticide use in the dormitory was recorded by an interview with one student in each bedroom. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney.Results: As many as 57 knockdown mosquitoes belonging to three species were obtained namely Culex fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti with mortality rate of 50.88% after 24h holding. Knockdown and mortality of mosquitoes were significantly different based on d-allethrin formulations. D-allethrin concentrations were not effective for controlling Culex mosquitoes but effective for Ae. aegypti.Conclusion: Further efficacy of d-allethrin 0.15% aerosol to eradicate Ae. aegypti is necessary to be conducted in sup­porting the Dengue vector control.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 206 | views: 296 | pages: 268-283
    Background: The impact of environmental factors and host on Hyalomma spp. community structure and abundance in the main Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) foci of Iran is largely unknown.Methods: Biotic and abiotic factors, including host, temperature, humidity, altitude, Köppen-Geiger climate types, sea­son, and precipitation on Hyalomma spp. community structure and abundances in 11 provinces of Iran were investigat­ed. Additionally, the possible infection of ticks with CCHF virus was evaluated using reverse transcription PCR tech­nique.Results: Species analyses demonstrated the presence of Hyalomma anatolicum, H. marginatum, H. dromedarii, H. asi­aticum, H. detritum and H. schulzei in the study area. Hyalomma anatolicum was the dominant species in the southern and northern parts, whereas H. dromedarii was distributed mostly in central parts of the country. The highest tick infestation was recognized in hot season. Spatial variation in tick relative density was observed between habitat types where more ticks were collected in deserts, semi-deserts, and Mediterranean habitats. Except for H. dromedarii, which was more preva­lent on camel (P= 0.044), there were no significant variations in the frequencies of other Hyalomma species on different hosts. Hyalomma anatolicum, H. dromedarii frequencies had significant positive and negative asso­ciation with tempera­ture and precipitation respectively. Also humidity has positive impact on H. asiaticum frequency.Conclusion: Data presented here will help improve ecological models to forecast the distribution of Hyalomma spp. ticks, to evaluate the risk of CCHF and other tick-borne diseases, and to design proper vector control measures to sup­press Hyalomma populations in Iran.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 131 | views: 193 | pages: 284-296
    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) can cause a fatal disease in humans and it is mainly transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Vector control using insecticides is a very important goal. Study of Culex pipiens re­sistance towards several insecticides in the city of Tehran, Iran was evaluated.Methods: Adult females reared from field-caught larvae from southern part of Tehran and lab strain reared in the insec­tary of Tehran University of Medical Science were determined for resistant status by exposing to 4% DDT, 0.1% bendi­ocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 1% fenitrothion, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.5% etofenprox, 5% malathion and 0.15% cyfluthrin papers using the standard WHO susceptibility tests.  Results: Results clearly showed resistance development of Cx. pipiens against tested insecticides. Mortalities of Cx. pipiens were less than 90% with high resistance, low knock down rate and knock down time (50%) observed against insec­ti­cides. DDT and Malathion showed the most and least lethal time (LT50) values for the field strain. The results of the knock­down test showed that DDT and deltamethrin had the most and least knockdown times (50%) for the field strain, re­spec­tively, while DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin had the most and least knockdown times (50%) for the lab strain, respectively.Conclusion: Resistance to mentioned insecticides in Cx. pipiens is widely distributed in southern part of Tehran. Regu­lar implementation of susceptibility test in Cx. pipiens mosquitoes will help local public health authorities to develop new and better control strategies.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 184 | views: 240 | pages: 297-309
    Background: This study was carried out to identify Theileria spp. infections in goats and ticksin Kermanshah Prov­ince, western Iran from May–Sep 2015.Methods: For differentiation of different Theileria spp. both blood and tick samples were examined by nested PCR-RFLP.Results: Light microscopy of blood smears revealed Theileria spp. infection in 22 (5.5%), while 68 (17%) of blood samples were positive using nested PCR. Out of 68 positive samples, 85.3% (58/68) and 11.7% (8/68) were respec­tively positive for Theileria ovis and T. lestoquardi. Mixed infection was detected in 3% (2/68) cases. Overall, 420 ixodid ticks belong to seven different hard ticks species were collected from goats. Rhipicephalus turanicus 112 (26.7%), R. sanguineus 95 (22.6%), R. bursa, 91(21.7%), Hyalomma anatolicum, 55(13.1%), H. excavatum 27(6.4%), H. marginatum, 22(5.3%) and Dermacentor marginatus, 18(4.2%) were the main tick species infesting goats. The PCR products obtained from ticks were subjected to the differentiation of Theileria species. Respectively, 2 and 8 pools of H. marginatum and R. turanicus salivary glands were infected with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. In addition, T. annulata and T. lestoquardi infection weredetected in three pools of H. anatolicum.Conclusion: This is the first report of goats and collected ticks to Theileria spp infection in Iran. The results suggest that T. ovis has a higher prevalence than T. lestoquardi. It is also postulated H. marginatum, R. turanicus and H. ana­tolicum might play an important role in the field as a vector of Theileria spp in this area.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 209 | views: 282 | pages: 310-323
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is an important public health problem in the world. Khuzestan Province is one of the main foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the southwest of Iran. We aimed to predict the spatial distribution of the vector and reservoir(s) of ZCL using decision-making tool and to pre­pare risk map of the disease using integrative GIS, RS and AHP methods in endemic foci in Shush (plain area) and Khorramshahr (coastal area) counties of Khuzestan Province, southern Iran from Mar 2012 to Jan 2013.Methods: Thirteen criteria including temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, soil texture, soil organic matter, soil pH, soil moisture, altitude, land cover, land use, underground water depth, distance from river, slope and distance from human dwelling with the highest chance of the presence of the main vector and reservoir of the disease were chosen for this study. Weights of the criteria classes were determined using the Expert choice 11 software. The pres­ence proba­bility maps of the vector and reservoir of the disease were prepared with the combination of AHP method and Arc GIS 9.3.Results: Based on the maps derived from the AHP model, in Khorramshahr study area, the highest probability of ZCL is predicted in Gharb Karoon rural district. The presence probability of ZCL was high in Hossein Abad and Benmoala rural districts in the northeast of Shush.Conclusion: Prediction maps of ZCL distribution pattern provide valuable information which can guide policy mak­ers and health authorities to be precise in making appropriate decisions before occurrence of a possible disease out­break.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 137 | views: 203 | pages: 324-333
    Background: Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite which causes malignant malaria of medical concern. Prime candidates for recombinant vaccine development are asexual stage antigens of P. falciparum, for example, merozoite surface proteins (MSP1 and MSP2) not given satisfactory results to date. In this study, the 19kDa C-terminal of MSP1, a vaccine candidate was purified in its native form in the ring stage, and its glycoproteins studied.Methods: The study was carried out at the Biochemistry Department of Pasteur Institute of Iran in the years 2015–2016. Large scale culture of P. falciparum was performed in vitro with 80% ring stage parasitemia. Isopycnic ultracentrifuga­tion with 36% sucrose and analytical SDS-PAGE on the supernatant and precipitate performed, and the 19kDa antigen was obtained by cutting it from strips of preparative SDS gels. Purified protein was concentrated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, using antibodies raised to recombinant C-terminal MSP1.Results: The purified protein gave a single band of 19kDa antigen as shown by silver staining of SDS-PAGE and a sin­gle bond in immunoblotting. Bioinformatics also confirmed the likelihood of the presence of glycans on the antigen.Conclusion: The presence of N and O-glycoproteins were detected by Q proteome kit. This work was done on the ring stage, and earlier workers confirmed the presence of glycoproteins on MSP1 in the other stages. This glycosylation is present in all stages, and maybe incomplete protection elicited by recombinant MSP1 antigens is due to lack of N and O-glycoproteins.

Short Communication

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    Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is endemic in 17 of 31 Iranian provinces. Various species of rodents have been introduced as the main reservoirs of the disease. This study was conducted to de­termine the natural infection of hedgehogs with Leishmania spp. in an endemic area of the disease, northern Iran.Methods: Fifteen long-eared hedgehogs were captured alive during 18 months study period, from Apr 2015 to Sep 2016, in Damghan City, Semnan Province, Iran. The animals were identified using apparent characteristics and to de­termine the Leishmania infection, impression smears were prepared from their ear lobes, hind feet, livers, and spleens. Micro­scopic examination and semi-nested PCR were applied to determine the infection and to identify the parasites species respectively.Results: All examined animals were identified as Hemiechinus auritus (Family: Erinaceidae). In microscopic examina­tion, 8 (53.3%) samples were shown to be infected with Leishmania parasites. The higher and lower rate of the infection was observed in the ears as well as the feet and in the liver specimens, 53.3%, and 33.3% respectively. Forty percent (6/ 15) of the samples were molecularly positive and all were identified as L. major parasites. All the examined animals in au­tumn and 50% of them in summer were shown to be infected with Leishmania parasites.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the natural infection of H. auritus with L. major for the first time in Damghan City and introduced these mammals as new potential reservoirs of ZCL in the study area.