Vol 15 No 3 (2021)

Review Article

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    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an ancient endemic disease in Iran and continues to be a growing health threat to community development and the environment. This paper explains how to use the facilities of health centers for developing a laboratory network on vectors and reservoir hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.Methods: A literature search was performed of the relevant multiple databases to include studies on vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. A team of experienced experts was performed. After holding several meetings, field visits and organizing workshops, the activities of laboratories were determined at three levels.Results: Entomological studies showed that 5 species of the genus Phlebotomus and 10 species of the genus Sergentomyia are active in the south, 4 species of the genus Phlebotomus and one species of the genus Sergentomyia in the central part and 5 species of the genus Phlebotomus and 2 species of the genus Sergentomyia in the north east. Reservoir hosts were identified in the study areas. The tasks of laboratories were regulated at different levels.Conclusion: The Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education should prioritize the employment of capable persons in the field of Medical Entomology and Vector Control. The survival of this laboratory network depends on hiring and employing interested and persistent people. The universities of Medical Sciences that have the facilities to set up this network will be a very effective partner in the control of the disease in high risk areas. The results can be used in neighboring countries.
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    Background: Zoonotic diseases as health concerns worldwide account for more than half of the emerging infectious diseases. Arachnids are powerful vectors to transmit several diseases to humans. Additionally, these emerging zoonotic diseases have been a considerable health threat in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the WHO (EMRO) due to the large population living close to farms and international trade with nearby countries.Methods: This review study is based on the reported three tick-borne diseases, Lyme disease, Tularemia, and Q fever, from Iran and other EMRO countries. To this end, we searched PubMed central, ISI web of Science, and Google with the related keywords in English at any time. The reported data are then sorted by countries for each disease.Results: According to the published data, 15 countries in the region have one/more emerging infectious diseases. Q fever has been the most frequent infection in EMRO countries, while Lyme was less recorded. Furthermore, Iran is among the countries with documented history of all three investigated diseases.Conclusion: Tick-borne disease is popular among EMRO countries, indicating that they have natural conditions for infections in animals and humans. It appears necessary to develop a disease management strategy and control programs against tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Moreover, the disease-resistant animal could be bred instead of susceptible livestock. Therefore, research studies to control TBDs should be regarded as a top priority plan.

Original Article

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    Background: Malaria continues to be the main vector-borne disease in Iran. The endemic foci of malaria are in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, the borderline of Iran and Pakistan. By the year 2020 the program of the country is malaria elimination. The main vector control is using insecticide as Indoor Residual Spraying. The aim of the study was to evaluate the susceptibility of main malaria vectors to different insecticides recommended by WHO. Methods: All the insecticides papers supported by WHO and evaluation of insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles superpictus to different chemical groups of imagicides including DDT 4%, malathion 5%, propoxur 01.%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, deltamethrin 0.025% and permethrin 0.75% were followed by the WHO guideline. Results: Results of the susceptibility test against different insecticides revealed that An. stephensi and An. culicifacies are resistant to DDT and susceptible to other insecticides. An. superpictus is susceptible to all groups of pesticides. Conclusion: Knowledge on insecticide resistance in target species is a basic requirement to guide insecticide use in malaria control programmes in local and global scales.
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    Background: Vector borne diseases (VBDs) are the infectious diseases reported from all parts of the world and Iran. The main vectors of VBDs belong to the phylum of arthropod and insects. The aim of this study was providing the database of important VBDs and vectors and geographical distribution model in Ardabil, northwest of Iran.Methods: This retrospective cross–sectional study was conducted from 2001–2018. All the earlier published studies, reports and documentations related to vectors and vector–borne diseases searched systematically as well as the data of diseases was collected from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. ArcGIS 10.4.2 (http://www.esri.com/arcgis) were used to spatial analysis mapping, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) index and high/low clustering. Results: Totally 110076 cases of VBDs reported in Ardabil Province during the past 18 years including malaria, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), tick–borne relapsing fever (TRF), pediculosis, scorpionism, scabies and anthrax. These diseases were transmitted in Ardabil Province by eight arthropod families, 19 genera and 70 spices of arthropods. Most species belonged to Culicidae with 24 species followed by Psycodidae with 22 and Ixodidae with 16 species. The incidence rate of VBDs was 63/100000 in 2001 which decreased to 7/100000 in 2010 and then increased to 21 /100000 in 2018.Conclusion: The distribution model of the VBDs was plotted based on the geographical and ecological of the vectors will help the authorities for decision.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 6 | views: 128 | pages: 300-313
    Background: Given the significance of climate change and its substantial effects on mosquitoes’ habitats, this study was aimed to model the spatial distribution of the main malaria vectors in the south east of Iran. Methods: Several scientific databases between 1980 and 2019 were reviewed to find mosquito species and their spatial information in this area. The archived folders in the center for diseases control and prevention were used to exploit essential data on malaria cases and foci. Three representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were chosen to stand for three possible climate scenarios. Finally the potential species distribution of Anopheles stephensi and An. culicifacies s.l. in the 2030s and 2050s horizons were estimated by the Maximum Entropy Model.Results: So far, a total of 39 mosquito species belonging to the family Culicidae have been reported from the study area. In 2019, the total malaria cases have increased by 91% compared to 2015, as well as a sharp rise than 2018 (249%). In that year, 91% of cases were imported from other countries, which caused 40% increase in the new potential foci than in 2018. The Jackknife test demonstrated the annual mean temperature and precipitation of the coldest quarter with the greatest impact on the environmental suitability of the mentioned two species. Conclusion: The effect of climate change on the appearance and recurrence of mosquito-borne diseases has been demonstrated in various studies. Collecting further data and conducting investigation on this issue will improve control management, especially for the malaria vectors.
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    Background: Cockroaches are one of the most common pests in many residential areas. In this study, the simultaneous effects of fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and fenitrothion-coated baits on the mortality rate of the German cockroach nymphs were investigated. Methods: To determine the lethal level of fenitrothion insecticide, a bioassay test was performed on the last instar nymphs of the German cockroach reared at insectarium conditions. Various toxic concentrations of fenitrothion (0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9%, 1.5%, and 2%) were used. Different concentrations of M. anisopliae (1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, 1×108 Conidia/ml) were also applied to nymphs. Eventually, we combined the effective dose of fenitrothion (0.93%) with the effective concentration of M. anisopliae (6.6 ×106 Conidia/ml) to provide the fungus-coated bait to attract insects. Mortality was recorded 24–96 hours after exposure to the toxic bait. The resulting data were subjected to Probit analysis.Results: The results of applying M. anisopliae spores with fenitrothion composition showed that the mortality rate of German cockroach nymphs was significant. Therefore, the optimal dose of fenitrothion used in combination with M. anisopliae seems essential to reduce the German cockroach nymphs. Conclusion: The results of this study can be considered a suitable method as a mixture with low cost and minimal damage to the environment and other organisms.
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    Objective: Head lice infestation also known as a serious health problem in developing and developed countries. The prevalence of pediculosis in children and female is higher than others. The infestation may cause absence of student from school and make their parents upset. The aim of current study was to evaluate the WHO recommended insecticides for control  of  head lice in Islamshahr health center. Material & method: In the current study infested individuals was older than 6 years old and have been diagnosed with at least 3 head lice adult and 10 live nits from less than 0.7 cm scalp. The pediculicides was applied randomly among groups. Permethrin shampoo as a golden standard was used. Dimethicone lotion 4% and Ivermectin lotion was compared with it. This study was conducted on 179 infested people. Results of infestation were evaluated after one month of intervention. Different indicators such as: present of head lice adult or live nit, redness and irritating in head skin were invested. Result: All the participants were female and 72.6% of them were at the age group of 6-11. The result revealed that aging not only decreases the infection rate but also raised the recovery percentage. The results showed that 79.5% permethrin receiver, 83% of people who treated with Dimethicone lotion and 90.6% of  Ivermectin receiver had no head lice. There was no significant difference among these three pediculicides. Conclusion: There was no significant difference among tested pediculicides. Appropriate pediculicide can be selected   by training people.
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    Background: Extensive use of chemical larvicides to control larvae, has led to resistance in vectors. More efforts have been conducted the use of natural products such as plant essential oils and their new formulations against disease vectors. Nanoformulation techniques are expected to reduce volatility and increase larvicidal efficacy of essential oils. In this study for the first time, a larvicide nanoemulsion from the essential oil of Acroptilon repens was developed and evaluated against Anopheles stephensi larvae under laboratory conditions.Methods: Fresh samples of A. repens plant were collected from Urmia, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. A clevenger type apparatus was used for extracting oil. Components of A. repens essential oil (AEO) were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). All larvicidal bioassay tests were performed according to the method recommended by the World Health Organization under laboratory condition. Particle size and the morphologies of all prepared nanoformulations determined by DLS and TEM analysis.Results: A total of 111 compounds were identified in plant. The LC50 and LC90 values of AEO calculated as 7 ppm and 35 ppm respectively. AEO was able to kill 100% of the larvae in 4 days. Conclusion: The nanoemulsion of AEO showed a weak effect on the larvar mortality. It may therefore be suggested that this kind of nanoemulsion is not appropriate for the formulation as a larvicide. It is important to screen native plant natural products, search for new materials and prepare new formulations to develop alternative interventions with a long-lasting impact.

Letter to the Editor